In a previous study of mine given at URL, I had shown that in a given test, which is called the Dell Hymes 200 word list test, about 47% of the Turkish words were the same as those of the Sumerian words, that is, after about 5000 years of separation. In that test, 200 Sumerian words, corresponding to different concepts, are chosen, and the selected language claiming to be related to Sumerian must pass a certain percentage of relationship in order to be regarded as a related language. This previous study of mine, with a 47% correspondence, was strong proof that Sumerian and Turkish were not only related to each other but most likely were the same language or dialects to one another. Thus, a language that has 47% of the root words of the Sumerian list can be a direct descendant of that language.

Dell Hymes mathematical relationship [5] is given in my first study at URL:

Sumerian, being an ancient and, according to some thinking, a "dead" language, has had its present day reading done through the intermediary of Akkadian and other Semitic languages. That is to say, Akkadian and other Semitic languages are said to have been used as an intermediary dictionary in the reading of Sumerian texts. Since language is the most important part of any culture, those who did not live that Sumerian culture which created the Sumerian language and who read the Sumerian texts recently would not be able to read and define exact meanings of Sumerian words - no matter how efficient they may have been in reading Sumerian cuneiform texts. Therefore some degree of inexactness is expected in the definition and attributed meaning of each Sumerian word that is presented to readers at this time.  It is known that Semitic Akkadians "adopted" the language and culture of Sumer after they conquered it.  As I have explained in my other writings, "adopted" here does not mean that the Akkadians took the existing Sumerian language and used it themselves as it was.  The so-called Akkadian language is a restructured and altered form of the original Sumerian and/or most likely Turkish because under scrutiny, many Akkadian words suggest that they were restructured from Turkish.  Since Akkadian was used as a "lens" for reading and deciphering Sumerian texts,  the resulting transliterations are expected to be much more Semitized and further alienated from the source texts, 

In the study I present here, I collected some 300 Sumerian words that have correspondence with Turkish. The sample words are mostly one to two syllables in both languages. My sources for this study are mainly the "Vocabulary" in the book by C. J. Gadd and a book by Edgar H. Sturtevant given below in the references.   Particularly, in the case of the book by Edgar H. Sturtevant, I also noted the page numbers on which words and their meanings appear. 

This list is done independently of my previous lists. I have not included the list by Prof. Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna. Thus this is a new list that may include some of the words identified by Osman Nedim Tuna and in fact may not have some of the words that he has in his list. In any case, this three hundred word list here constitutes unquestionable and powerful kinship between Turkish and Sumerian.  So much so that Sumerian can be called a Turkic language.

In the book by Edgar H. Sturtevant, there are many Sumerian words that have been read in different forms, such as TUR being read as MAR or DUMU. Also there are many Akkadian words that give the impression of being restructured directly from Turkish. Similarly, there are Sumerian words that look suspiciously like they too were derived from Turkish - making one think that this was done during the presentation of the transliterated words.  The readers of those ancient Sumerian texts must have been aware that the Semitic and Indo-European words were restructured forms of Turkish words and phrases. It is likely that they may have used the same alteration technique in order to further alienate Sumerian from Turkish.

The list below is the result of this study. 




(Italicized words are Akkadian.)






 Sumerian  ABBA                             father
 Turkish  APA, BABA                    father


 Sumerian  ABBA.ABBA(HI.A)     [4, p. 24]  forefathers
 Turkish  APAAPA                                           father's father, forefathers
Turkish  BABA BABA                                   father's father, forefathers
Turkish  ATA ATA                                         father's father, forefathers
Turkish  DEDE, DADA                                  father's father, forefathers
Turkish  CED                                                 forefathers


 Sumerian  A-DAH (A-DAGh)  helper
 Turkish  HODAG  farmer's helper, young boy helper


 Sumerian  ADDA                            father, old man
 Turkish  ATA                                father
 Turkish  DADA, DEDE                grandfather; old man


 Sumerian  ABZU  waters under the earth
 Turkish  APA-SU  father-water


 Sumerian  EN-ZU  (AB-ZU)  lord water
 Turkish  HAN -SU  lord water; "Water" (SU) is a godly element.


 Sumerian  ADAM  creatures
 Turkish  ADAM  man


 Sumerian  AGA  crown, tiara
 Turkish  AGA (AGA, AHA)

underlined letters are Turkic soft G



 Sumerian  AGAL  mightily
 Turkish  ULU AGA  great lord


 Sumerian  AGUR  endued with strength
 Turkish  GUR (GÜR)  strength
 Turkish  GÜRLÜ  with strength


 Sumerian  AMA  mother
 Turkish  ANA  mother
 Turkish  AM, AMA  mother
 Turkish  MAMA/MEME  mother's breast


 Sumerian  AMA  [4, p. 20]  broad, breadth
 Turkish  EN  broad, breadth


 Sumerian  AMAR  young bull
 Turkish  EMER (EMER DANA, EMER KUZU)  suckling young calf or lamb


 Sumerian  AN  high; sky, heaven
 Sumerian  AN  [4, p. 21]  DINGIR, God
 Turkish  AN (sky) as in TANRI (from ATA-AN-ERI)  "father-sky-man"


 Sumerian  ANU  the God of Heaven
 Turkish  HAN U  that Lord, Sky Lord


 Sumerian  ANA  suffix 3rd person singular pronoun
 Turkish  ANU, ONU  3rd person singular pronoun


 Sumerian  A-NA  interrogative pron. what?
 Turkish  O NE, NE  interrogative pron. what?


 Sumerian  GISHAPIN  [3, p. 305; 4, p.24]  wooden plough
 Turkish  AGASH (AGACH) SABAN  wooden plough


 Sumerian  GISHAPIN-TUK-KIN    [3, p. 305; 4, p.24]  seed feeding plough

SABAN (plough); TÜK (DÖK)  (drop), eKIN  (seed).

 seed dropping plough


 Sumerian  LUAPIN-LAL  [4, p.24]  farmer
 Turkish  OLA SABANLU (SABANLU OLA)  farmer


 Sumerian  LUAPIN-LAL-UTU  [4, p.24]  position of a farmer
 Turkish  OLA-SABANLU-TU   men is with plough, he is farmer


 Sumerian  A.QAR     [4]  field, territory
 Turkish  KIR   field, land


 Sumerian  AR  glory, renown
 Turkish  AR   dignity


 Sumerian  ARA  path
 Turkish  ARA  narrow path


 Sumerian  ARAD  servant
 Turkish  ERDI   he is man, he is helper, he is servant


 Sumerian  ARAH (ARAKH)    [4, p. 25]  granary
 Turkish  HARMAN (harman yeri)  harvest place


 Sumerian  AS  one, one alone
 Turkish  AS (BIR, AZ)  one, peerless, all alone, god


 Sumerian  ASAR  Strong, powerful
 Turkish  AS ER  one man, peerless man, strong man


 Sumerian  ASh    [4, p. 29, 189]  kind of spelt, wheat
 Turkish  ASh    (arpa, bugday, yiyecek)  barley, wheat, food


 Sumerian  ASh-ME    [4, p. 31]  sun disk
 Turkish  IShIMA  shining


 Sumerian  za-ARA     [4, p. 2]  mill-stone, mill
 Turkish  EZER O  it crushes, it makes powder, it makes flour


 Sumerian  E-za-ARA    [4, p. 25]  mill
 Turkish  EV-EZER   (ezer ev, degirmen evi)  house of crusher, house of flour maker


 Sumerian  LU ZA-ARA, SAL za-ARA   [4, p.25]  miller, baker
 Turkish  OLA EZER, EZERCI OLA, UNCU OLA  miller


 Sumerian  AZAG.UD; read as KUBABBAR   [4, p. 33, 171]  white
 Turkish  AZ AG OD    (essiz ak atash)  peerless white fire, sun-white


 Sumerian  LUAZU; read as LUUZU    [4, p. 33, 174]  seer
 Turkish  OLA US U   (US OLA O, UZ OLA O)  he is wise man


 Sumerian  LUA.ZU    [4, p. 33]  physician
 Turkish  OLA US U  (US OLA O)  he is wise man



 Sumerian  BA  to divide, portion out
 Turkish  PAY  (bölmek)  to divide, portion out


 Sumerian  BA, BI  as demonstrative pron., this, that
 Turkish  BU  as demonstrative pron., this


 Sumerian  BAD;    read BE = BELU    [4, p. 120, 121]  master, lord
 Turkish  BEY  master
 Turkish  BEYDI  he is master
 Turkish  BEYLU (BEYLI)  with mastership


 Akkadian  BELU     [4, p. 120, 121]  master, lord
 Turkish  BEYLU  with mastership


 Akkadian  BELUTU    [4, p. 121]  mastery, lordship
 Turkish  BEYLUTU    (BEYLIDI)  with mastery, with lordship


 Akkadian  BELUMESH     [4, p. 121]  nobles
 Turkish  BEY OLMUSH  has become noble


 Sumerian  BAL  To excavate, dig out
 Turkish  BEL (BELLEME)  to excavate, dig out


 Sumerian  BAR  to shine, be bright
 Turkish  PAR (root of PARLAMAK)  to shine, to glow, being bright


 Sumerian  BILGAMESH (GILGAMESH)  men who new everything
 Turkish  BILGAMESH (BILGEMISH)  he who has acquired knowledge


 Sumerian  BILGA  old man
 Turkish  BILGE  old wise man


 Sumerian  BUR  make a hole
 Turkish  BORU  a pipe which is a long hole


 Sumerian  BUR  hole, opening
 Turkish  BURGU  hole maker


 Sumerian  BUR  to make a hole
 Turkish  BURGU  hole maker


 Sumerian  DAGAL     [4, p. 147]  breadth
 Turkish  DAGILI  (YAYILI)  spreads in all directions


 Sumerian  DAM    [1]  husband, or wife
 Sumerian  DAM    (ASHSHATU  = Tr. 'ESHTU') [4, p. 149]  wife
 Turkish  ADAM  man, husband
 Turkish  DAM    (ev)  house, wife


 Sumerian  DAM-ZU    [4, p. 149]  his wife

-SU, -SI is the Tr. verbal suffix meaning his/her.  

 his home, his wife


 Sumerian  DAM-UTTU   (DAM ATAR)    [4, p. 149]  marriage
 Turkish  DAM-ETTU  (EV-ETTU, DAM EDER, evlenme)  marriage, made a home, made a marriage
 Turkish  ADAM-ETTU  (evlendirdi)  made man out of him, got him married


 Sumerian  DAM-QAR  agent, middle-man, banker
 Turkish  KAR ADAMI  agent, middle-man, banker


 Sumerian  DE  to pour out voice, to speak, utter words
 Turkish  DE  speak, say something, pour out words


 Sumerian  DI    (=DINU)     [4, p. 159]  justice, court, law-suit
 Turkish  DE  (TÖRE, TORA, KANUN)  say, judgment, töre (torah), law, tradition
 Turkish  DIN O  it is religion, it is rule and law


 Sumerian  DI-TAR    [4, p. 160]  justice, judgment
 Turkish  DE TUR    (KUTSAL DEME, TUR Demesi)  sacred say, justice, judgment, God's saying


 Sumerian  DI-KUD    [4, p. 159], DI-TAR  justice, judgment
 Turkish  DE KUT    (KUTSAL DEME)  sacred say, justice, judgment


 Sumerian  DINGIR    [1]  God
 Sumerian  DINGIR    (= ILU)    [4, p. 159]  God, Goddess; DINGIR is usually followed by the Akkadian phonetic complement (-LIM, -LUM) or by a plural sign. DINGIR-LIM-is kis- "become a god, die"(of Hittite kings). [4, p. 160]


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DINGIR.LIM-nili,   [4, p. 160]  "in the manner of a god"
 Turkish  TENGIR KIMI     K to L shift  like a god


 Sumerian - Akkadian  Lu DINGIR-LIM-niyanza  "man of the god or the like"
 Turkish  OLA TENGIR KIMI  (gibi)  "man like a god"


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DINGIR.LIM-niyatar, DINGIR.MESH-tar  "divinity"
 Turkish  TENGIR OLMA  "becoming God"


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DINGIR.MAH  "giant"?
 Turkish  TENGIR MA (MAH)  "Magnificent God", magnificent moon


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DINGIR.MESH-tar  "divinity"
 Turkish  TENGIRMISH-TUR  (Tanri olmustur)  "has become god"


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DINU    [4, p. 160]  justice, court, law-suit
 Turkish  DIN O, TÖRE O  it is religion, it is tradition, it is law, it is justice


 Sumerian  DU  to make, build, to strengthen
 Turkish  ED (ET, YAP)  to make, build, to strengthen
 Turkish  ED U  (ET U, YAP U)  it is to make, it is build, it is to strengthen


 Sumerian  DU(g)  to make, build, to strengthen
 Turkish  DIK  to build, to raise, to sew, to erect, to strengthen


 Sumerian  DUG  to speak, word, command
 Turkish  DEGI (DEYI)  to speak, word, command


 Sumerian  DUMU  child, generally son
 Sumerian  DUMU    = MARU    [4, p. 164]  son
 Sumerian  TUR     = read DUMU  [4, p. 165]  son, child
 Turkish  UMUD-U  He is hope, he is security, he is son
 Turkish  ADUM U (ADIM O)  He is my name, he is son
 Turkish  ADAM O  he is man, he is boy

Note: In Turkish there is the saying of "çocuk-tur", "küçük-tür" meaning "it is child, it is small". In this case TUR is the suffix meaning "it is". It is most likely due to such usage of Turkish word TUR that it has been attributed the meaning "child, small" in reading the Sumerian texts.  This is another attempt to obliterate the ancient Turanian name TUR as it has been replaced with MAR and DUMU.


 Sumerian  DUMU.DUMU  or (TUR.TUR)  [4, p. 164, 165]  grandson
 Turkish  TORUN  grandson


 Sumerian  DUMU E.GAL     [4, p. 164] also TUR E.GAL  palace servant
 Turkish  ADAM EV-AGA AL  Man of great red house, man of palace


 Sumerian  DUMU URU HATTI    [4, p. 164] also TUR URU HATTI  "A Hittite"
 Turkish  TUR ÖRÜ HATTI (TUR city of HATTI?????????)  


 Sumerian  DUMU LUGAL [4, p. 164] also TUR LUGAL  prince
 Turkish  TUR ULU AGALI  (ULU AGALI TUR, BEY)  Great Lordly Tur, prince


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DUMU SHIPRI  = MAR SHIPRI   [4, p. 164]  messenger
 Turkish  "ASHIRIP ADAM"   (TASHIYICI ADAM)  messenger man, carrier man

NOTE: The Akkadian word SHIPRI is a restructured word from Turkish ASHIRIP meaning "carried, taken".  

 Sumerian  DUMU.LU.GAL.LU    [4, p. 164]  human being, man
 Turkish  "ULU ADAM OGLU" (ULU INSAN OGLU)  great son of man, man


 Sumerian  DUMU.NAM.LU.GAL.LU    [4, p. 164]   = DUMU AMELUTI  humanity, mankind, people
 Turkish  NAMLU ADAM OGLU  renown son of man, named human beings, named people
 Turkish  ADLU ADAM OGLU  renown son of man, renown human beings, named people
 Turkish  ShANLU ADAM OGLU  renown son of man, renown human beings, named people


 Sumerian - Akkadian  DUMU AMELUTI  humanity, mankind, people
 Turkish  TUR ALEM ITU  TUR was all peoples, TUR was humanity, TUR was mankind
 Turkish  TUR ALAM IDU  TUR was all peoples, TUR was humanity, TUR was mankind
 Turkish  TUR AL MA IDU  TUR was Sun and Moon peoples, TUR was mankind

Note: These expressions in Sumerian, Akkad and Turkish verify the ancient world as a TUR/TURK world and their world was TURAN.  Evidently the wandering AKKADS, like the wandering GREEKS, did a lot of alteration to the ancient Turkish language and called the altered versions of Turkish words and phrases as their own 'invented' language.  The wanderers did all of these confusions in order to obliterate the ancient TUR/TURK Turko-Sumerian, that is, KUNGUR (GÜN-KOR), KI-EN-GI (GÖY-HAN KÖY) peoples. 


 Sumerian  DUMU.NITA     = read IBILA [4, p. 164]  male child
 Turkish  BALA  Son, child


 Sumerian  DUMU    = MARU    [4, p.164]  son
 Sumerian  TUR;     read as DUMU     [4, p. 165]  son, child
 Turkish  TUR  TUR boy, TUR man


 Sumerian  DUMU.USh    = IBILA       [4, p.164]  male child
 Sumerian  TUR.USh        = IBILA      [4, p. 165]  male child
 Turkish  BALA  Son, child


 Sumerian  DUMU.SAL     = MARTU    [4, p. 164]  daughter, girl
 Turkish  TUR KIS (TUR KIZI)  Tur girl
 Turkish  KISTUR    (KIZTUR, KIZDUR)  it is girl, it is daughter
 Turkish  TURA  TUR girl

Note: L in SAL is an intentional replacement for "K" as an alphabetic up-shift. With that alteration, the word becomes SAK which is the reverse of Tr. KIS (KIZ) meaning "girl".

 Akkadian  MARTU    [4, p. 164]  daughter, girl
 Turkish  AMTUR  it is female, it is girl


 Akkadian  DUN  a kind of animal, probably a kind of ox
 Turkish  DANA  calf, one year old cattle


 Sumerian  DUR  to sit, dwell, abide
 Turkish  DUR  stop
 Turkish  OTUR  sit down


 Sumerian  DURU, DURI  for ever
 Turkish  DURU, DURAN, TURAN  stays put, stays forever


 Sumerian  DURUN  dwellers, settlers
 Turkish  DURAN  settler, stopper


 Sumerian  E  house, temple
 Turkish  EV  house, temple


 Sumerian  E DINGIR-LIM    [4, p. 33]  temple
 Turkish  EV TENGIR  (TENGRI EVI, TANRI EVI)  temple


 Sumerian  E-GAL  palace, great house
 Turkish  AGA-AL-EV  great red house
 Turkish  EV AGA AL  Great red house;  Tr. AL meaning "red" was also SUN-GOD's color, which is also the color of amber fire.


 Sumerian  E-SU        [6, p.172]  his house
 Sumerian  E-ZU        [6, p. 172]  his house
 Turkish  EV-I-SI  his house;  The Tr. suffix -SI, -SU is the verbal suffix for possessive case. A better example is ANA (mother), ANA-SI or ANA-SU meaning "his mother".  Similarly, ATA (father) => ATA-SI meaning "his father".


 Sumerian  EGIR [4, p. 34]  afterwards, again, back
 Turkish  GERI  back, again


 Sumerian  EGIR [4, p. 34]  behind, after
 Turkish  GERI, GERIDE  behind, after


 Sumerian  EGIR [4, p. 34]  last, later
 Turkish  GERI, GERIDE  last, later


 Sumerian  EGIR-AN-DA [4, p. 34]  "behind" with a suggestion of motion.
 Turkish  GERI-DEN   (geriden gelen gibi)  "from behind" with a suggestion of motion.


 Sumerian  E GUD    [4, p. 33]  stable
 Turkish  EV UD (UD EVI, SIGIR EVI, AHUR, AHIR)  stable


 Sumerian  E-IUM, ILUM  exalted, powerful
 Turkish  EYUM (EYIYUM)  I am well off
 Turkish  ULUYUM  I am great


 Sumerian  E  LUGAL     [4, p. 33]  palace
 Turkish  EV ULU-AGA-OLA  house of great lord man


 Sumerian  EME    [4, p. 35]  tongue
 Turkish  EMI, EMME (EMMEK, AGUZ)  mouth, tongue


 Sumerian  EN   [1]  lord, noble
 Sumerian  EN   [4, p. 35]  master
 Turkish  HAN (BEY, PAShA)  lord, noble


 Sumerian  EN KARASh    [4, p. 35]  general {Reading has been altered. PK}
 Turkish  HAN ASKAR  (HAN ASKER, PAShA)  general


 Sumerian  EN SISKUR    [4, p.35]  sacrificer, person who has a sacrifice performed
 Turkish  HAN ASKER (yigit, kahraman)  sacrificer, person who has a sacrifice performed


 Sumerian  ENE  Nomin. & accusative personal  pronoun 3rd person singular
 Turkish  ANI, ONI, ONU  same as ENE


 Sumerian  ERI  slave
 Turkish  ER  man, soldier, hero, husband, servant


 Sumerian  ERIM  man, servant, soldier
 Sumerian  ERUM    [4, p. 36]  slave
 Turkish  ERIM, ERUM  my man, my soldier, my servant


 Sumerian  ERUM-UTU    [4, 36]  slavery
 Turkish  ERUMTU (ERIMDI)  he/she is my slave


 Sumerian  EREN, ERIN, LU ERIN     [4, p. 36]  troops
 Turkish  EREN (ERLER, ASKERLER, ORDU)  troops, army


 Sumerian  ESh  three
 Turkish  ÜSh, ÜCh (Üç)  three


 Sumerian  E  ZA, E ZA-KIShIB    [4, p. 33]  house of seals, store house, treasury
 Turkish  EZINE (HAZINE)  house of seals, store house, treasury


 Sumerian  EZEN    [4, p. 38]  festival, feast
 Turkish  IZIN    (bayram, tatil)  holiday, vacation, festival, feast


 Sumerian  GA-AB (GAB)  breast
 Turkish  GABAG  breast, chest, front


 Sumerian  GAL also MA-AL   to be, to exist
 Turkish  OL  to be, to exist
 Turkish  OL-MA  coming into existence, becoming, being


 Sumerian  GABRI  opponent, rival
 Turkish  GARShI  opponent, rival


 Sumerian  GAR  to do, make, establish
 Turkish  GÖR   (YAP)  see it done, make it, establish


 Sumerian  GAShAN  queen
 Turkish  GIZ-HAN  girl lord, woman lord, female lord


 Sumerian  GAZ  to slay, sacrifice
 Turkish  GES (KES)  to slay, to cut, sacrifice


 Sumerian  GEShTU  ear, sense, understanding
 Turkish  IShIT, IShITUG  that which hears, ear, sense, understanding


 Sumerian  GEShTUG  ear, intelligence
 Turkish  IShITUG (IShITIK)  that which is heard, intelligence


 Sumerian  GI (-GI)  to turn back, restore
 Turkish  GERI  to turn back, restore


 Sumerian  GID  to be long, long
 Turkish  GID (GED)  long wooden pole


 Sumerian  GID  to roam at large
 Turkish  GIT, GEZ  go, walk, roam around at large


 Sumerian  GIG  night, black, dark
 Turkish  GECE (GEGE)  night, black, dark


 Sumerian  GIN  to go
 Turkish  GIT  to go


 Sumerian  GUD ALO  [4, p.20]  The Heavenly Bull meaning "sun"
 Turkish  AGA UD/UT AL O  Lord Red Bull It is / "Lord Red Fire It is"; Tr. UT/UD is "bull". OD is "fire"


 Sumerian  GUD            [4, p. 85]  cow, bull, ox
 Turkish  UD (UT)      [7, p. 877]  cattle, cow, bull, ox


 Sumerian  GUD.MAH    [4, p. 85]  bull
 Turkish  UD MA/MAH  magnificent cattle, magnificent bull, divine bull OGUZ


 Sumerian  ZAG-GIN  to go by the side
 Turkish  SAGA GIT  to go to the right, to go to the side


 Sumerian  GIR  to stab; dagger
 Turkish  GIRI  that which enters, that which breaks, that which cuts


 Sumerian  GIR  foot
 Turkish  GIRI, AYAK  that which enters, foot


 Sumerian  GIR  way
 Turkish  GIRI, YOL  that which is used to enter, path, way, pathway, door, gate


 Sumerian  GIR  strength
 Turkish  GÜR, GÜCLÜ  strength, powerful


 Sumerian  GISh  wood, determinative before wooden objects
 Turkish  AGASh, AGAÇ  wood


 Sumerian  GISh-GIG  shadow
 Turkish  GILGE, GÖLGE  shadow


 Sumerian  GISh-ShIR  light
 Turkish  IShShIR (ISHIR)  light, it shines


 Sumerian  GISH.IG    [4, p. 56]  door
 Turkish  ESHIG (EShIK)  door, outside


 Sumerian  GISHIGI-DU read as "GISH ShUKUR" [4, p. 57]  spear
 Turkish  AGASH (agaç) GID O  it is a long wooden pole used as hitting instrument in a fight


 Sumerian  GISH ShUKUR     [4, p. 143]  "spear" or similar weapon
 Turkish  AGAÇ SIRIK (GID, GED)  wooden long pole used as hitting instrument in a fight {English word "SPEAR" is made up from Tr. "SIRIK' with Q/P shift. PK}


 Sumerian  GISH SU-A    [4, p. 142]  chair, throne
 Turkish  AGAÇ SOFA  wooden sofa, wooden chair, wooden throne


 Sumerian  GISHShUDUN    also GISHShUDUL     [4, p. 145]  yoke
 Turkish  GOSHU EDEN (GOShAN, boyunduruk)  that which ties, yoke


 Sumerian  GISHTIR or GISH TIR    [4, p. 160]  grove, wood, forest
 Turkish  AGAShTUR (AGAÇTIR)  it is wood, it is forest


 Sumerian  GU   [GIYU]  bank of river
 Turkish  GIYU, GIYI, KIYI  bank of (river, lake, sea, any water body)


 Sumerian  GUD  bull, ox
 Sumerian  GUD    [4, p.  53]  a divine bull
 Turkish  AGA-UT (UD), OKUZ  big cattle, bull, ox
 Turkish  OKUZ, OGUZ, TUR  Divine Bull, Sun and Moon, divine Ox


 Sumerian  GULA  great, mighty
 Turkish  AGA ULU  Great, mighty


 Sumerian  GUR-GUR  to go here and there
 Turkish  GIR GIR (gir gir, oraya buraya girip çikma, bos dolasma)  to go here and there


 Sumerian  GUR  huge, mighty
 Turkish  GÜR  big, large, mighty, strong


 Sumerian  GUR  to raise, to exalt
 Turkish  UGARU (YUKARU)  above, up, to make it upper


 Sumerian  GUR  to sever; to be parted
 Turkish  GIR, KIR  to break, to sever, to part apart


 Sumerian  HAR  usury, interest
 Turkish  KAR , KÂR, ASHURU, ASHIRI  gain, what was earned in interest


 Sumerian  HAR-RA  usurer
 Turkish  KÂR ERI, ASHURAN, KAÇURAN  usurer


 Sumerian  HAR-SAG  mountain, hill
 Turkish  KIR-SAL  hilly area, mountain side


 Sumerian  HILIB  underworld
 Turkish  ÖLÜB  dead-one


 Sumerian  HUL  destroy, ruin
 Sumerian  HUL    [4, p. 51]  bad, injure, become bad
 Turkish  ÖL (ölme)  die, dying, kill



 Sumerian  I     [4, p.56]  properly the figure 1 (one)
 Turkish  I (BIR)  figure 1 (one)


 Sumerian  I     [4, p.56]  used as determinative with the names of men {I has been usurped into English as "I" as personal pronoun 1st person singular. PK}
 Turkish  MEN  personal pronoun 1st person singular {Note "men" in the definition. PK}


 Sumerian  I = YA    [4, p.56, 184]  oil
 Turkish  YAG  oil, fat


 Sumerian  I, IAG    [1]  oil, butter, fat
 Turkish  IAG, YAG  oil, butter, fat


 Sumerian  IA read as YA     [4, p. 56]  
 Turkish  IA read as YA, YE, I  probably Tr. AY, meaning "moon"? PK

{probably Tr. AY, meaning "moon"? PK}


 Sumerian  -YA, Dingir.UTU-ShI  = ShAMShU, ShAMSHI   [4, p. 56, 172]  Sun
 Turkish  AYA, AYAS  light, sunlight, sun


 Hittite  Dingir Istanus    [4, p. 172]  sun
 Turkish  Tengir ISTAN  (IShITAN, ISITAN, GÜNESh)  God that lights, God that heats, sun


 Sumerian  DUTU-ShI    [4, p. 172]  "my sun god", "my majesty"
 Turkish  Tengir OT-IShI (OD-IShI, Atash-IShI, IShITAN-GUN, GÜN-IShI, GÜNESh, ISTAN)  Fire-Light, Tengir.ISTAN, SUN


 Sumerian  id-IDIGNA  the river Tigris
 Turkish  idi DICLE (adi DIGLE)  it was the river Tigris, its name is Tigris


 Sumerian  IDI  chamber
 Turkish  ODA  chamber, room


 Sumerian  ILLU  high water, flood
 Turkish  SEL  flood; ILLU (YELLU) (windy)


 Sumerian  ILLU  (first) with K/L shift
 Turkish  ILK U  it is first


 Sumerian  ILU  to cry aloud, shriek
 Turkish  ULU  to cry aloud, to howl, to shriek


 Sumerian  ILU  to utter lamentation
 Turkish  AALA (AGLA)  to cry, to lament


 Sumerian  IMHUL  hurricane, destroying wind
 Turkish  YELUM  I am wind


 Akkadian  IShTEN    [4, p. 65]  one, only, alone
 Turkish  ISTAN   (ÜST-HAN, TANRI, ISITAN, IShITAN, GÜNES)  Top Lord, God, Sun, One, only, alone


 Akkadian  ISHTENUTU    [4, p. 65]  one
 Turkish  ISHITAN OD O     (Günes, Bir)  it is the lighting fire, it is sun, it is one
 Turkish  ISITAN OD O        (Günes, Bir)  it is the One that heats, it is the heating fire, it is sun, it is one
 Turkish  IST-HAN O DU     (ÜST-HAN ODU, Gök Tanri)  He is the topmost Lord, He is the Sky-Lord, He is One
 Turkish  ISTAN  Sky-God, Sun


 Sumerian  IZI  fire
 Turkish  ISHI  light
 Turkish  ISI  heat, fire
 Turkish  KÖZ  fire


 Sumerian  KA  mouth, face
 Turkish  KAPU  door, opening
 Turkish  GABAG  face


 Hittite  AIS        [4, p. 67]  mouth
 Turkish  AUZ, AIZ, AGUZ, AGIZ  mouth


 Sumerian  KA  gate
 Turkish  KAPU  gate, door


 Sumerian  KABUR  window
 Turkish  KAPU  door, opening, window


 Sumerian  KALAG  (KALA)  mighty
 Turkish  KALA, (GALA, KALE, KULE)  tower, towering, mighty


 Sumerian  KALAM  esp. the land of Sumer as distinguished from KUR, foreign countries
 Turkish  ILIM  my country
 Turkish  ÜLKEM  my country


 Sumerian  KAR-LIL  temple woman, servant of Ishtar
 Turkish  KARI, KADIN  woman


 Sumerian  KI  place
 Turkish  KÖY  village, country place


 Sumerian  KID  cut off, remove
 Turkish  KIDI, KIYDI  cut off into pieces, remove piece-by-piece


 Sumerian  KI-EN-GI  The land of Sumer
 Turkish  KÖY-HAN-GÖY  GÖY-HAN (GÖK-HAN) village, GÖK-HAN country, Land of Sky-Lord


 Sumerian  KI-IZI  fire place
 Turkish  KÖZ (ISI, IShI, OCAK)  heat, light, fire place, hearth


 Sumerian  KIN  to send, order; to fetch
 Turkish  KÖN-DER  to send, to fetch


 Sumerian  LUKIN-GI-A  messenger
 Turkish  ULAK  messenger
 Turkish  GÖNDERI OLA  messenger


 Sumerian  KI-SIKIL  maiden, young woman
 Turkish  KIZGIL (KIZLAR)  the girls
 Turkish  KIZLIK  maidenhood


 Sumerian  KISLAH  uncultivated land
 Turkish  KIShLAK  winter land, wintering grounds


 Sumerian  KI-SURRA  boundary
 Turkish  KÖY SURU (KÖY ÇEVRESI, sarma)  boundary of village


 Sumerian  KISHI  forehead
 Turkish  KASH (ALIN)  eyebrow, forehead


 Sumerian  KI-UR  foundation, site
 Turkish  KÖY YERI  village site
 Turkish  KURU ("kurmak" fiilinden)  foundation


 Sumerian  KI-UR  thing founded, city
 Turkish  KÖY YERI  village, city
 Turkish  KURULUSh  settlement
 Turkish  KÖY ÖRÜ  woven village, woven city


 Sumerian  KU  To eat, cause to eat
 Turkish  AC U  he/she/it is hungry,    C/K shift


 Sumerian  KU  bright, clean, pure
 Turkish  AK O  it is white, bright, clean, pure


 Sumerian  KUR  land, mountain
 Turkish  KIR  country side, land, mountainous land


 Sumerian - Akkadian  KUR.SAPLITU    [4, p. 133]  The lower Country", i.e., the part of the central plateau of Asia Minor that lies immediately south of the Halys.
 Turkish  BASILI KIRTU çöküntü yer, alçak yer  it is land that is depressed, land that is lower


 Sumerian  LA  used as negative
 Turkish  MA  used as negative {LA is a Semitic shift from Tr. MA as suffix of negativity.}


 Sumerian  LAL  honey
 Turkish  BAL  honey


 Sumerian  LUGAB  block of stone
 Turkish  LABUG (LEPÜK)  block of flat stone


 Sumerian  LIGIR  prince, ruler
 Turkish  ULUG ER  (ULU ER)  prince, ruler


 Sumerian  LIL  wind, storm
 Turkish  YEL  wind, storm


 Akkadian  LIMU (LIM)     [4, p. 92]  thousand
 Turkish  MIN  thousand

{Note: the Akkadian LIMU is from Turkish "MIN U" where Tr. N has been changed into L, meaning "it is thousand".  Similarly, LIM is from Turkish MIN.}

 Sumerian  LU  man
 Turkish  OLA  man


 Sumerian  LU ShU-GAL    [4, p. 142]  commander
 Turkish  OLA SÜ AGA ULU    (SÜ = asker)  Great Lord Soldier Man


 Sumerian  LU SUKAL (or LU SUKKAL)    [4, p, 142]  bailiff, steward; vizier
 Turkish  ULU AK SAKAL (yasli bilge kisi, vezir)  old wise man, vizier


 Sumerian  LUGAL  king; master of property
 Turkish  ULU AGA OLA  great lord man


 Sumerian  LUL  to lie, deceive
 Turkish  YALAN  lie, deceive


 Sumerian  LU TAPPU    [4, p. 152]  companion, friend, equal
 Turkish  OLA TAPUP  Found man, found friend (yine kimi "taptun", bu kim? O arkadasim)


 Sumerian  LU TAPPUTU    [4, p. 152]  friendship, equality
 Turkish  OLA TAPUPTU  (arkadas edinmis)  found a friend, made friendship


 Sumerian  MA, MA-E  I, personal. pron. 1st person. singular
 Turkish  MEN  I, personal pron. 1st person. singular


 Sumerian  -MA  suffixed personal. pron. 1st. person. singular
 Turkish  -AM, -EM, -IM, -UM  verbal suffix personal. pron. 1st person. sing.


 Sumerian  MAH  high, exalted, splendid, magnificent
 Turkish  MAH, MA (AY)  a name for Moon, high, magnificent


 Sumerian  MASh  produce, esp. of goats and oxen; cattle
 Turkish  MAL  sheep, goats, cattle; produce


 Sumerian  ME  command
 Turkish  -ME, -MA  negative command suffix as in "GEL-ME" meaning "do not come".


 Sumerian  ME-LAM  splendor
 Turkish  MA, ME  magnificent, splendor. Sun and Moon are magnificent


 Sumerian  MEEN  personal. pronoun 1st person. plural
 Turkish  MEN  personal pronoun 1st person singular


 Sumerian  MU  suffix for personal pronoun 1st person.
 Turkish  -UM  suffix for genitive pron. 1st person singular implying "my" or "mine" as in OKUL-UM (my school)


 Sumerian  MUShME  appearance, face
 Turkish  ÜZÜM (YÜZÜM)  my face
 Turkish  ÖZÜM  myself


 Sumerian  MUShEN  bird
 Turkish  KUSh-AN (KUSh-LAR)  birds; K to M shift has taken place
 Turkish  UShANEM (UÇANIM)  I fly, I am bird


 Sumerian  LU MUSHEN.DU     [4, p. 105]  bird breeder; bird maker; augur
 Turkish  OLA KUSH EDEN  man is bird maker


 Sumerian  NAM  fate
 Turkish  NAM, AD, ISIM, KADER  name; a name is a person's fate


 Sumerian  (A)NI  nominal and accusative personal. pronoun 3rd person. singular
 Turkish  ANI, ONU  nominal and accusative personal. pronoun 3rd person. singular


 Sumerian  NE  demonstrative pronoun
 Turkish  NE?  what?


 Sumerian  LUNIMGIR    [4, p.110]  an official {PK: most likely a learned, educated person.}
 Sumerian  LUUKU    =  read LUNIMGIR    [4, p. 168]  an official
 Turkish  OLA OKU    (okumus adam)  read man, man who is educated in school


 Sumerian  NIMGIR    [4, p. 168]  an official
 Turkish  MEN OGIR (MEN OKUR)  I read


 Sumerian  NIM.LAL     [4, p. 110]  bee
 Sumerian  LAL  honey
 Turkish  MEN BAL  I am honey


 Sumerian  NIN  lady, mistress
 Turkish  NINE (ANAANA)  grandmother


 Sumerian  NINDA    [4, p. 27]  crescent shaped loaf?, bread
 Turkish  NAN, NANDI  bread, it is bread


 Sumerian  NIN-GIR-SU  lord of GIRSU
 Turkish  NINE-KIR-SU  goddess of field waters


 Sumerian  NIN-LIL  wife of EN-LIL the wind god
 Turkish  NINE-HAN-YEL  Grandmother lord wind


 Sumerian  NI.TE        [4, p. 111]  body, self
 Turkish  TEN  body, self


 Sumerian  PAGISh-BILGA  forefather, ancestor
 Turkish  APA GISHI BILGA  (APA BILGE KISI)  learned father person


 Sumerian  RA  to strike
 Turkish  UR, VUR  to strike


 Sumerian  RA  to go
 Turkish  YÜRÜ  to go, walk


 Sumerian  RI  to go, run, speed along
 Turkish  YÜRÜ  to go, walk, move along!


 Sumerian  RU  to give, present, dedicate
 Turkish  VER  to give, present


 Sumerian  SAG  head
 Turkish  BASh  head


 Sumerian  SHAG.BAL.(LAL), SHAG. BAL.BAL    [4, p. 129, 133]  descendant, posterity
 Turkish  BAL BAL      (ölmüs atalar, sag ellerinde içki kadehi ile)  dead ancestors
 Turkish  SAG BALA BALA  (yasayan nesil, soy)  living descendant
 Turkish  BALA  child


 Sumerian  SH.BAL(.LAL), SHA.BAL.BAL  [4, p. 133]  descendant, posterity
 Turkish  SAG BALA BALA  (yasayan nesil, genç soy, bala balasi)  living descendant
 Turkish  SAG BALA LAL (henuuz konusmayan cocuk)  young untalking child
 Turkish  LAL  one who cannot speak, child


 Sumerian  SAR  to write
 Turkish  YASAR, YAZAR  writer


 Sumerian  SIG  to strike, destroy; to cut down (trees)
 Turkish  KES  to cut, destroy, to strike, to cut


 Sumerian  SILIM  to be well, be safe
 Turkish  SAGLAM  to be well, in good condition


 Sumerian  SUB  to kiss, to worship, adore
 Turkish  BUSE, ÖPÜSh  kiss, kissing


 Sumerian  SUD  to be long, to lengthen
 Turkish  UZAD (UZAT)  lengthen it


 Sumerian  SUG  to go, hasten
 Turkish  KOSh  go, run, hasten


 Sumerian  SUR  to delimit; to mark a boundary
 Turkish  SUR (SARMA, çeper, çevir)  to enclose in a wall, to make a boundary


 Sumerian  SAG  to be favorable, friendly
 Turkish  SAG, SAGLAM, DOGRU  to be good


 Sumerian  SAG-HUL  joy of heart
 Turkish  SAG OL  may you be in good state, in joy


 Sumerian  ShE  grain, corn, especially barley
 Turkish  ASh  food, soup made with barley or wheat


 Sumerian  ShU  suffix of direction-case in nouns
 Turkish  ShU  this, that


 Akkadian  SHAMSHU    = DingirUTU    [4, P. 132]  Sun
 Turkish  ISHAMASH U (ISHIMISH O, Tengir OD O)  it is in alight, it is in flame, Sun


 Akkadian  SHAMU        [4, p. 132]  sky
 Turkish  SAMA O (SEMA O)  it is sky


 Sumerian  -TA    [4, p. 146]  suffix of ablative case, from
 Turkish  -TAN, -DAN  Tr. suffix meaning 'from'


 Sumerian  TAG  touch
 Turkish  TEG, DEG  touch


 Sumerian  TAH  to add, increase
 Turkish  KAT  to add, increase


 Sumerian  TUG    = read as TUKU and see TUKU.TUKU     [4, p. 163, 164]  be angry, quarrel
 Turkish  TAK (TAK TAK, VUR VUR)  hit with anger, noise made in fight


 Sumerian  TUG    [4, p. 163]  piece of cloth, garment
 Turkish  TUG  a standard with a flag at its tip


 Sumerian  GISHTUR.TUG     = read GISH.TUR.TUG    [4, p. 165]  ?????
 Sumerian  LU TARTENNU    [4, P. 155]  "commander-in-chief"
 Turkish  "OLA TAN ENTUR" (Ola Tan Hantur, Ola Gök Hantur)  man is Sky Lord
 Turkish  "ULU TAN ENTUR" (ULU GÖK HANTUR)  Great Sky-Lord

 The word Lu TARTENNU is an Akkadianized word and therefore a restructured one from Turko-Sumerian source. Hence it has several relevant meanings embedded in it.  Thus, when it is rearranged letter-by-letter as:

1)     "LU TAN ENTUR", it reveals itself as the Turkish expression "ULA TAN HANTUR" (OLA GÖK HANTUR) meaning "man is Sky-Lord", or "ULU TAN HANTUR" meaning "Great Sky-Lord".  Both of these Turkish expressions describe a very high level officer such as "commander-in-chief". 

If someone has the title of "Sky-Lord", then he is surely the commander in chief in his country. This name also brings to our attention the name "EN GI" in the name "KI EN GI" (see in this list) which I read as "EN GÖY" or "GÖY HAN" (GÖK HAN) which is the name of one of the six sons of OGUZ KAGAN.  It becomes clear that Sumerians were the "GÖK-HANS", i.e., "The Sky-Lords". 

2)    "LU TURAN-ENT", it is the restructured form of the Turkish expression "OLA TURAN HANTU" meaning  "man is Turan Lord" which again describes the position of "commander-in-chief". 

3)    "LU TURANTEN", it is the restructured form of the Turkish expression "OLA TURANTAN" meaning "man is from Turan".  Again the name relates this high level officer to ancient Turanians.  The next name, also given in the same source, also verifies this concept.

 Sumerian - Akkadian  LU TURTANU     [4, p. 165]

(variant of "LU TARTENNU")

 man as commander-in-chief
 Turkish  OLA TUR ANTU  man is Lord Tur of Sky
 Turkish  ULU TUR HANTU  He is great Tur Lord
 Turkish  U OLA TURTAN  (OLA TUR-DAN)  that man is from TUR people
 Turkish  ULU TURTAN  is from great TUR people
 Turkish  OLA TURANTU (OLA TURANLUDU)  man is from TURAN

The word LU TURTANU is an Akkadianized word and therefore a restructured word from Turko-Sumerian linguistic source. Hence it has several relevant meanings embedded in it.  Thus, when it is rearranged letter-by-letter as:

1)    "LU TUR-AN-TU", it reveals itself as the restructured form of the Turkish expression "OLA TUR-AN-TU" meaning "man is Lord-TUR of Sky" (Man is Lord Sky-God) which again makes him a "commander-in-chief".  Alternately, it would be "ULU TUR HAN-TU" meaning "He is Great TUR LORD" which again describes a "commander-in-chief's" position.

2)   "U LU TURTAN", it is the restructured and disguised form of the Turkish expression "O OLA TURTAN" (O OLA TURDAN) meaning "that man is from TUR people".  

3)    "OLA TURANTU", it is the restructured and disguised form of the Turkish expression "OLA TURANTU" (OLA TURANLUDU) meaning "man is from TURAN" which again connects the concept to ancient Turan. 


 Sumerian  LU TARTENN-UTU    [4, P. 155]  "position of commander-in-chief"
 Turkish  "U UT ULU TAN HANTUR"  "That Fire is Great Sky-Lord" which now refers to the "Sun-God" UTU being the "Sky-Lord" which it is. UTU also may stand for the Turkish word UTA( ODA) meaning "room, office for an officer".


 Hittite  TE        [4, p.157]  speak, say
 Turkish  DE  speak, say


 Hittite  TETHIT    [4, p. 159]  thundered?
 Turkish  TEHDIT (GÜRLEDI)  shouted, thundered


 Sumerian  TE    [4, P. 157]  often written for KUSH meaning "hide, leather"
 Turkish  DERI (KÖSELE, KOShUN, GÖN)  hide, leather, horse's leather ties, bridle


 Sumerian  TEMU (=TEMU)    [4, p. 157]  written message
 Turkish  TEME U,  (DEME O)  It is message, it is word, it is letter


 Sumerian  Lu TEMI, Lu TEMU    [4, p. 157]  messenger
 Turkish  Ola TEME, DEME OLA (ULAK, ULAH)  speech carrier, word carrier, messenger


 Sumerian  TIL     (read as BE)     [4, p. 159]  master
 Turkish  BEY   (AGA); (IL-ATA => TIL, IL BAShI)  master; country father


 Sumerian  Gish.TUKUL-GID.DA    [4, p.163]  long spear
 Turkish  TAKILI Agash GEDDI (kancali agaç sirik, "takilmak" fiilinden)  it is wooden pole with hook


 Sumerian  LU Gish.TUKUL GID.DA     [4, p.163]  man of the long spear; designation of a member of some crack regiment or of a high official.
 Turkish  TAKILI Agaç GEDLI OLA  man with long wooden pole with hook


 Sumerian  TUR     = read as DUMU  [4,  p.165]  son, child {PK: replacement of the word TUR with another meaning has taken place.}
 Turkish  TUR  TUR man
 Turkish  TURA  TUR woman


 Sumerian  TUR   (TURI)     [1]  to enter, to sink down, especially of the setting sun
 Turkish  OTUR  or O-TUR  "the sitting or setting of Sun"

Tr. OTUR means "sit"; O means "that" and TUR is the "Sky-God".


 Sumerian  U  ten
 Turkish  UN (ON)  ten


 Sumerian  U        [4, p. 167]  and
 Turkish  U  (VE, U=V)  and


 Sumerian  U    = read BURU    [4, p. 167]  hole
 Turkish  BORU (delik)  pipe, long hole


 Sumerian  UGULA         [4, p.168]  foreman
 Turkish  AGA OLA  top man, head man


 Sumerian  UGULA LU.MESh LIMTU     [4, p. 168]  captain of a thousand men
 Turkish  OLA MIN'E AGA ULMUShTU  man has become lord to thousand

OLA means "man", MIN means 1,000, AGA means "lord", OLMUSh means "has become"


 Sumerian  UKU        [4, p.168]  human being, man
 Turkish  OGUZ  Oguz man, human being


 Sumerian  UKUSh     [4, p. 168]  a kind of troops; heavy armed troops
 Turkish  UKUZ    (OGUZ ERI, OKUZ, BOGA)  Oguz man, Oguz troops, bull, ox
 Turkish  "O KOSh" (O KOCH, O KOÇ)  He is ram, he is fighting ram

NOTE: Turks call their young men by endearing names such as: "KOÇUM" meaning "my ram", "OKUZUM" meaning "my bull" and "TEKEM" meaning "my male-goat".


 Sumerian  LU.MESh UKUSh    [4, p. 168]  a kind of troops; heavy armed troops
 Turkish  UKUZ OLMUSh    (OGUZ OLMUSh, BOGA OLMUSH, KOÇ OLMUSh)  has become fighting bull, has become fighting ram; heavily armed soldier


 Sumerian  ERIN.MESh UKUSh     [4, p. 168]  a kind of troops; heavy armed troops
 Turkish  UKUZ ERINMISh (OGUZ ERINMISh, O KOÇ ERINMISh)  it is your Oguz soldiers, it is your bull-troops, it is your ram-troops; it is your well trained army


 Sumerian  U      [4, p. 167]  grass, plant; also a determinative with names of plants.
 Turkish  UT (OT)  grass, plant


 Sumerian  U       [4, p. 167]  sleep, dream
 Turkish  UYU  sleep


 Sumerian  UD  sun, light, day
 Turkish  OD  fire, light, heat


 Sumerian  UD    = read as BABBAR     [4, p.171]  white
 Turkish  OD (KOR OD, KOR ATASh)  very hot fire, fire in white color


 Sumerian  Dingir UD read as Dingir UTU    [4, p. 171]  Sun God
 Turkish  Tengir "OD O"  (ATASh O, GÜN-TANRI O)  it is Fire-God, it is Sun-God


 Sumerian  UD.KAM    [4, p.171]  day
 Turkish  OD AKAM  I am fire-white, I am white by fire, light, day time


 Sumerian  UD-az taksan    [4, p. 148]  midday
 Turkish  UD-AZ TIKSIN (diksin, gün orta)  peerless fire (sun) is perpendicular


 Sumerian  UDUN    [4, p. 173]  stove
 Turkish  ODUN  wood that is burned in stove


 Sumerian  UGULA  secretary, steward
 Turkish  OKU OLA  man who reads


 Akkadian  UMMU        [4, p. 168]  mother {PK: Akkad version has been restructured from Turkish word MEME.}
 Turkish  MEME     (MAMA)  mother's breast, baby's food
 Turkish  MAMA    (bebe yemegi)  baby food
 Turkish  ANA (ANNA, ANNE)  mother
 Hatti  ANNAS  mother; which is same as that of Turkish word ANNA.


 Sumerian  UR, UR-KU, UR.TUG     [4, p. 170]  dog
 Turkish  ÜRÜ, ÜRÜK, ÜRÜTÜK (ÜRÜYEN / havlayan)  that which barks, dog


 Sumerian  UR.BAR.RA    [4, p. 170]  wolf
 Turkish  BÖRI  wolf


 Sumerian  UR  foundation
 Turkish  ÖRÜ (örülmüs)  woven


 Sumerian  URU  city, town [4]
 Turkish  ÖRÜ, AUL, KÖY  (kurulush)  village, town, city


 Sumerian  UR  to rage, destroy
 Turkish  VUR, KIR, HARP  war, destroy, break, hit


 Sumerian  UR-BAR-RA  leopard, barbaru
 Turkish  ASLAN  lion


 Sumerian  URGULA  lion, literally great dog
 Turkish  ASLAN (GURLEYEN O)  it is the roaring one, it is lion


 Sumerian  URU  city
 Turkish  ÖRÜ  (örülmüsh)  woven thing, wall, building, village, town


 Sumerian  URUR  battle
 Turkish  URUR (VURUR)  battle, war


 Sumerian  DingirUTU        (sun god), read from Dingir UD    [4, p.171]  sun god
 Sumerian  Dingir UD    = Dingir UTU  sun god
 Turkish  OD O (OT O)  "it is fire" describing sun
 Turkish  Tengir OD    (OD TANRI, GUN TANRI)  sun god


 Sumerian  US  to stand upon
 Turkish  UST  above, top most


 Sumerian  DingirUTU-ShI  = ShAMShU, ShAMSHI; YA   [4, p. 172]  nom. Dingir.ISTANUS "Sun"
 Turkish  AYA  light, sunlight, sun


 Sumerian  DingirUTU-ShI    [4, p. 172]  DingirUTU-mi meaning "my sun god", "my majesty"
 Turkish  Tengir OT-IShI (OD-IShI, IShITAN, ISITAN, GÜN-IShI, GÜNESh, ISTAN)  "God Fire-Light, that which lights, that which heats, sunlight, sun, God ISTAN respectively."


 Sumerian  UZU       [4, p. 174]  flesh, part of the body
 Turkish  UZUV  part of body
 Turkish  ÖZÜ  inside body, flesh, blood
 Turkish  ÖZ O  it is inside body, it is flesh and blood


 Sumerian  UZU.NI    [4, p. 174]  flesh and blood
 Turkish  ÖZÜN  inside your body, your flesh and blood


 Sumerian  UZUYA    [4, p. 184]  fat meat, fat
 Turkish  ÖZ YAG (IÇ YAGI, kuyruk yagi)  self-fat, meat with fat, inside fat of meat


 Sumerian  YA.GISh        [4, p. 184]  tree oil
 Turkish  AGASH YAG (AGAÇ YAGI)  tree oil


 Sumerian  UZU YA.UDU        [4, p. 185]  'tallow', the fat of animals of the ox and sheep kinds
 Turkish  KUZU YAGIDU, UD YAGI  it is sheep fat, it is cattle (ox) fat respectively


 Sumerian  LU ZADIM     [4, p. 187]  stone mason
 Turkish  OLA DASIM (DASh OLAYIM, TASh OLAYIM)  I am stone man, I am stone mason


 Sumerian  ZAG  side
 Turkish  SAG  right side


 Sumerian  ZAG        [4, p. 186]  favorable, good
 Turkish  SAG  in good state, acceptable, in good order


 Sumerian  ZAG        [4, p. 186]  make right, bring to success; succeed
 Turkish  SAG yapmak, isler hale getirmek  to make in good state, to make workable


 Sumerian  ZAG  (AN-ZAG-ShU)  to the end of sky
 Turkish  UZAG, UZAK  very far


 Sumerian  ZA.GIN     = read as ZA.KUR     [4, p. 186]  lapis lazuli; blue
 Turkish  TUR OGUZ    (TURQUAZ, GÖK GÖY)  Sky blue
 Turkish  AZ GÜN    (Essiz Gün)  beautiful day, cloudless day, blue sky


 Sumerian  GISH ZERTU        [4, p. 188]  olive tree
 Turkish  AGASH ZEYTUN  (ZEYTUN AGACI)  olive tree
 Turkish  AGASh ZERDALI  (ZERDALI AGACI))  wild apricot


 Sumerian  YA GISH ZERTU        [4, p. 188]  olive tree oil
 Turkish  YAG AGASH ZEYTUN  (ZEYTUN AGACI YAGI)  olive tree oil


 Sumerian  ZI        [4, p. 188]  breath, heart, soul
 Turkish  ÖZ (ÖZÜ, ÖZI, CANI, NEFESI)  heart, soul, core of the body, breath


 Sumerian  ZI        [4, p. 188]  wish, desire
 Turkish  ISTE (ARZU, CAN ARZU)  wish, desire


 Sumerian  ZI        [4, p. 188]  self
 Turkish  ÖZÜ (ÖZI, CANI, KANI, kendisi)  self, heart, soul, blood, the core of the body


 Sumerian  ZID  flour, meal
 Turkish  EZIDI    (ezilmish, un)  it is crushed, it is milled


 Sumerian  ZIG  to go out
 Turkish  GEZ  to go out, walk around, have a walk


 Sumerian  ZIRIR  to smash, to destroy
 Turkish  EZER  crushes, destroys


 Sumerian  ZU  to know, wisdom
 Turkish  US (UZ)  wisdom, knowing




1.    The 300+ Sumerian words presented in the above list are unquestionably recognizable as Turkish. No linguistic contrary rhetoric will change that fact.  These words are evidences that at the time of Sumerians, Turkish was a widely used language.  

2.    The fact that Sumerian Dingir UD meaning "sun god" (versus Turkish Tengir OD meaning "fire god, sun god"), was presented as Dingir UTU clearly tells us that the readers of the ancient Sumerian texts deliberately misread or misrepresented at least some of the readings of the Sumerian texts so that they would not be recognized as Turkish. 

3.     The very fact that we find Sumerian GISH APIN meaning "wooden plough" and Turkish AGASH SABAN meaning "wooden plough" is an indication that farming grains, that is, barley and wheat (Tr. "arpa" and "bugday or bugda") was a Turanian invention.  These words are testimony that Turkish was present and also a widely used language at the time of Tur/Turk Sumerians. 

4.    We find the Turkish OGUZ (Sun-God), OKUZ (bull), and AGUZ (word) concept in Sumerian also, but still in Turkish. This is a concept that relates and unifies man with God and defines the human speech as "God's Word". Additionally describes the "bull" as a sacred logo of God. Sumerian Dingir UD,  (Dingir UTU - meaning "Sun God"), GUD (meaning "bull") and DI (meaning "word") versus Turkish Tengir OD (meaning "Sun God"), UT (meaning "bull") and DE (meaning "say, speak, word") are one and the same.   Additionally, they are homonyms (i.e., Sumerian UD - GUD - DI and Turkish OD - UT - DE) - just like Turkish OGUZ - OKUZ - AGUZ.

The English word GOD is almost certainly taken from Sumerian GUD meaning "Bull" because the bull was the sacred logo of the Sky God - just like Turkish OKUZ (bull) was the logo for the Sky God OGUZ.  Similarly, Turkish AGA UT (meaning "Lord cattle" - i.e., bull) is the bull. And also Turkish AGA OD (meaning "Lord Fire" - i.e., sun) was the Sun God.  It is seen that all modern concepts of GOD are gyrating around these ancient Turko-Sumerian concepts of GOD, BULL and SPEECH that were originally developed as part of the Turkish language and the civilization of the ancient Tur/Turk Turanian peoples.  Indo-European and Semitic languages took it from the ancient Turko-Sumerian Turanians. 

5.    The very fact that the Turkish term ISTAN, meaning Sky God, Sun-God, has been altered into Akkadian as IShTEN and  ISHTENUTU during the days of Sumerians is further evidence that Turkish was the dominating language in the Middle East and in the Shinar, that is, the KI EN GI (GÖY-HAN KÖY meaning "SKY-LORD LAND). Similarly, the Sumerian Dingir.UTU-ShI (which is the same as the Turkish "Tengir OD ISHU" meaning "God fire and light) which is the "sun", and Akkadian ShAMShU or  ShAMSHI (from Turkish "ISHIMISH" meaning "it is alight, it has become on fire, it is glowing" where Turkish ISHI means "light",  and also from Turkish  "ISIMISH" meaning "it has become hot" where Turkish ISI means "heat" and MISH is a suffix - all of which describe the sun or the Sun God) again verifies that Turkish was the dominant language of the Sumerian times. In fact Akkadian ShAMShU or  ShAMSHI (meaning "Sun God") is nothing but the restructured and disguised form of the Turkish expression "ISHIMISH" and "ISIMISH".

6.    It can be confidently said that Sumerian is not a dead language nor are the Sumerians dead people. The Sumerians (most likely the GÖY-HANs) are living as Turkic peoples and their language as Turkish. At its time, the Sumerian language must have been a dialect of the ancient Turanian TUR (OGUZ) language. 

7.    Since the time of Semitic Akkadians and in view of the known information, there has been an anti-Tur campaign against the ancient Turanians, their religion and language. With such animosity, the Tur/Turk peoples' language, religion, civilization and traditions (Tr. töre, tora, torah) have been confused and usurped by way of altering the language. Hence anything and everything that was Turko-Sumerian have been changed and confused. Even the ethnicity, name and religion of the Turanian Tur/Turk peoples have been altered and assimilated into non-Turanian groups.  This, together with the demonization tactic, has been the tactic of obliterating the very ancient, well developed and established civilization of Turan which was the model for modern civilization.  


1.    C. J. Gadd, "A Sumerian Reading Book", Oxford At The Clarendon Press, 1924. 
2.    John L. Hayes, "A manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", UNDENA Publications, Malibu, 1990.
3.    Dr. Mebrure Tosun ve Dr. Kadriye Yalvaç, "Sumer, Babil, Asur Kanunlari ve Ammi-Saduqa Fermani", Türk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, 1989.
4.    Edgar H. Sturtevant, "A Hittite Glossary", Yale University by The Linguistic Society of America, "WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY LINGUISTIC SERIES", 1936.
5.    Dell Hymes, "Lexikostatistics so far", Current Antropology, pages 30-31 University of Chicago, 1960.
6.    Warren H. Held, Jr., William R. Schmalstieg and Janet E. Gertz, "Beginning Hittite", Slavica Publishers, Inc., Colombus, Ohio, 1987.
7.    Hüseyin Namik Orkun, "Eski Türk Yazitlari", Türk Dil Kurumu Yayinlari:529, Ankara, 1987.  

With best wishes to all,

Polat Kaya