Re: [bcn2004] Efes: Gladyator Mezar Taslari
Degerli kardesim Erhan Berber,
Asagida ekli gönderdigin bilgi için tesekkür ederim. Konu ilginç olmakla beraber bilhassa IUGULA sözcügü dikkatimi çekti. Bu kelimeyi içeren cümleyi asagida kirmizi ile isaretledim. "GLADIATOR" oyunlarinda sahnede vahsice olan bogusmalari seyreden Roman seyircileri begenmedikleri savascinin öldurülmesi için yerlerinden "IUGULA" sözünü bagirirlarmis. "I" harfinin bir baska hali de "Y" harfidir. Bunun bilincinde olarak, bu sözde "Latince" sözcük bana Türkçenin birkaç sözcügünü hatirlatti.
1) IUGULA sözcügü YUGOLA haliyle Türkçe "YIKULA" (YIKILA, YIKILSIN) anlamli (= "let him fall, let him die") sözcügü oluyor ki bu bir nevi beddua istegi oluyor. "BOYUN YIKILA" yahut "BOYNU YIKILASI" gibi Türkçe deyimlerde oldugu gibi..
2) Ayrica IUGULA yahut "YUGULA" sözcügü "YUG-OLA" seklinde incelendiginde yine Türkçe olarak "YOK OLA" ifadesi olup (ÖLSÜN, YOK OLSUN, GITSIN, CANI ALINSIN, YASAMASIN) anlamli bir sözcük olup yine seyircilerin basarisiz savasciya "ölüm" arzularini ifade eden bir sözcük oluyor.
3) Türkçe "YAKALA" sözcügü de hem birisini "yakalamak, tutmak" anlaminda oluyor ve hem de birisini "YAKASINDAN TUTMAK" (boynundan tutmak, bogazini sIkIp öldürmek, boynunu kIrmak) anlamli oluyor. Bu anlaminda dahi yine Türkçe bir sözcük tanimlamasi oluyor.
Latince-Ingilizce sözlükte, IUGULO kelimesi Ingilizce olarak "to cut the throat (Tr. bogazini kes), kill (Tr. öldür); to ruin, destroy (Tr. yik, tahrip et)" anlamli olarak veriliyor. Bu anlami ile Latince IUGULO , IUGULA Türkce "YIKILA" (= "let him fall, let him die") ve/veya "YOK OLA" (= "let him not live, let him die") ve/veya "YAKILA" (= "let him burned, let him die") ile ayni oluyor ve de çok olasilikla bu üç ayri Türkçe sözcügün anlamini bünyesinde birlestiren bir bilesik sözcük oluyor.
Böylece, IUGULA seklinde verilen bu sözde Roman (Latince) sözcügü aslinda Türkçe bir sözdür ki bu da Miladdan önce birinci bin yilda Romada Türkçe konusuldugunun baska bir örnegidir.
Ikinci bir seklinde, Latince-Ingilizce sözlükte, IUGULUM ve IUGULUS olarak veriliyor ve bu halinde "the collar-bone; the hollow above the collar-bone, the throat" olarak veriliyor. Bu anlaminda, Türkçe YAKA sözcügü isin içine girmektedir.
Bilindigi üzere, Türkçe YAKA sözcügü "boyun, bogaz" anlamlidir. Ingilizce "collar-bone" ise her ne kadar Türkçe "KÖPRÜCÜK KEMIGI" diye bilinirse de, ayni kemigin eski çaglarda "YAKA KEMIGI" olarak bilinmesi de çok olasidir. Türkçe YAKA (YAGA) sözcügü Latince IUGULUM ve IUGULUS sözcükleri içinde "IUGU" (YAGA/YAKA) seklinde vardir. Çok olasilikla Latince IUGULUM ve IUGULUS sözcükleri Türkçe "YAKALUK" sözcügünden yapilmistir.
Yine Latince-Ingilizce sözlükte, üçüncü bir sekli IUGUM olarak veriliyor ki bu haliyle "a yoke; a horse's collar; a team or yoke; a pair, a couple; the marriage tie; the beam of a pair of scales; the beam of a waver's loom; ridge of a mountain; IUGA, the rowers' benches" anlamlari ile tanimlanmis.
Bu tanimlamada ilkin sunu belirteyim ki Ingilizce "YOKE" kelimesinin Türkçe "YAKA" sözcügünün degistirilmis halidir. Ayrica Latince IUGUM sözcügü Türkçe "YAKAUM" (YAKAYUM, YAKAYIM) deyiminin degistirilmis hali oluyor. Türkçe "YAKAUM" (YAKAYUM, YAKAYIM) deyimi ise hem "boyun" (yaka) ve hem de "boyunduruk" (yakalik) anlamli Türkçe kelimelerdir.
Burada "a yoke; a horse's collar" anlaminda olan Latince IUGUM sözcügü atlarin arabaya kosumunda kullanilan ve atlarin boynuna takilan "YAKALIK" (BOYUNLUK) araci oldugunu gösteriyor. Demek ki bu haliyle dahi yine bu Latince sözcük Türkçeden ve eski Türk medeniyetinden kaynaklanan bir sözdür.
Bu Latince sözcügün bir terazinin iki gözünü birbirine baglayan boyun agacina ad olarak verilmesi de onun "YAKALIK" (BOYUNLUK, BOYUNDURUK) oldugunu gösteriyor.
Eskiden çesmeden su tasima araci olarak, "terazi" yakasina benzer bir agacin uclarindaki çengellere "su kovalari" asilir ve omuzda dengelenerek su tasinirdi ki bu haliyle ona hem "boyunduruk" (çeyindirik) denirdi.
HalI dokuma tezgahinda yan direkleri birbirine baglayan en üstteki yuvarlak boyun agacina (YAKA) da bu Latince adin verilmesi onun yine Türkçe kaynakli oldugunun isaretidir. Halicilik Türk dünyasina ait bir sanattir.
Görüldügu gibi gönderdiginiz "GALADIATOR oyunlari" kavrami ile ilgili yazidan sözde "Latince" dilin Türkçeden yapilmis kelimelerinden bir baskasini daha gün isigina çikarmis oluyoruz. Bu da eski çaglara ait dünyanin Türkçe konusan bir dünya oldugunu gösteren baska bir belgedir.
Selam ve sevgi ile,
Erhan Berber wrote:
Gladiators' graveyard discovered
By Monika Kupper and Huw Jones
Gravestones helped identify the site as a gladiator graveyard
Scientists believe they have for the first time identified an ancient graveyard for gladiators.
Analysis of their bones and injuries has given new insight into how they lived, fought and died.
The remains were found at Ephesus in Turkey, a major city of the Roman world, BBC Timewatch reports.
Gladiators were the sporting heroes of the ancient world. Archaeological records show them celebrated in everything from mosaics to graffiti.
Motifs of gladiators are found on nearly a third of all oil lamps from Roman archaeological digs throughout the Empire.
But how much did they risk every time they stepped into the arena? Did they have much chance of getting out alive?
The discovery of what is claimed to be the first scientifically authenticated gladiator graveyard has given researchers the opportunity to find out.
The Ephesus graves containing thousands of bones were found along with three gravestones, clearly depicting gladiators.
Two pathologists at the Medical University of Vienna - Professor Karl Grossschmidt and Professor Fabian Kanz - have spent much of the past five years painstakingly cataloguing and forensically analysing every single bone for age, injury and cause of death.
They found at least 67 individuals, nearly all aged 20 to 30. One striking bit of evidence is that many have healed wounds.
The team examined the remains
To Kanz and Grossschmidt, this suggests they were prized individuals getting good and expensive medical treatment. One body even shows signs of a surgical amputation.
And the lack of multiple wounds found on the bones, according to the pathologists, suggests that they had not been involved in chaotic mass brawls. Instead, it points to organised duels under strict rules of combat, probably with referees monitoring the bouts.
But there was also evidence of mortal wounds. Written records tell us thatif the defeated gladiator had not shown enough skill or even cowardice, the cry of "iugula" (lance him through) would be heard throughout the arena, demanding he be killed.
The condemned gladiator would be expected to die "like a man" remaining motionless to receive the mortal blow.
The pathologists discovered various unhealed wounds on bones that showed how these executions could have taken place. And these are consistent with depictions on reliefs from the time showing a kneeling man having a sword rammed through down his throat into the heart. A very quick way to die.
It was basically the final blow, in order to release them
Prof Fabian Kanz, Medical University of Vienna
Tell-tale nicks in the vertebrae or other bones suggest at least some of the bodies suffered this fate.
A number of skulls were also found to have sets of up to three holes at odd intervals, consistent with a blow from a three-pronged weapon such as a trident.
"The bone injuries - those on the skulls for example - are not everyday ones, they are very, very unusual, and particularly the injuries inflicted by a trident, are a particular indication that a typical gladiator's weapon was used," says pathologist Professor Karl Grossschmidt.
But not all head injuries found were trident wounds. A number of the skulls showed rectangular holes that could not have been made by any of the known gladiator weapons. Instead, they suggest the use of a heavy hammer.
"One possible explanation, which is supported by a number of archaeologists, is that there must have been an assistant in the arena who basically gave the gladiator the coup de grace," says Professor Kanz.
"I assume that they must have been very severely injured gladiators, ones who had fought outstandingly and so had not been condemned to death by the public or by the organiser of the match, but who had no chance of surviving because of their injuries. It was basically the final blow, in order to release them."
The work of the Viennese pathologists has been independently reviewed for the BBC's Timewatch programme by Dr Charlotte Roberts of Durham University, a leading physical anthropologist.
"I've looked at quite a few hundred Roman skeletons. I've seen examples of head injuries, healed and unhealed. I've seen evidence of decapitations," she says.
"But this (new find) is extremely significant; there's nothing been found in the world at all like it. They've really dispelled quite a lot of myths about gladiators and how they fought."
Gladiators were prisoners of war, slaves or condemned offenders
If a gladiator survived three years of fighting in the arena, he would win his freedom. Those who did often became teachers in the gladiator school; and one of the skeletons found at Ephesus appears to be that of a retired fighter.
He was of mature age and the scientists were able to reconstruct nearly his entire body. His head showed apparent signs of healed wounds from previous fights but, clearly, none of them would have proved fatal.
"He lived quite a normal Roman lifespan," says Professor Kanz. "And I think, most probably, he died of natural causes."
Historical records suggest a gladiator's chance of survival was slim, with some estimates as low as a one in three chance of dying each time he fought. But it appears one of the Ephesus gladiators at least survived the odds and had a chance to enjoy his retirement from the arena.
# Posted by Michelle Moran @ | 3:50 PM