Part-4 "Turkish-Sumerian Kinship": about the name "Ki-en-gir"
Part-4 About the name "KI-EN-GI(R)"
(ShUMERU or SUMER)
By POLAT KAYA
Sumerologists tell us that in the language of Sumerians the name
KI-EN-GI(R) was the name of Sumerians and their land (country).
Sumerologist John L. Hayes writes about the name KI-EN-GI as follows:
""Ki-en-gi This GN is always written syllabically. The etymology is
unsure; this is discussed below. The word ended in a /r/, not
reflected in the script. The Akkadian equivalent of Kiengi was
Shumeru. This Akkadian word may be a dialectical pronounciation of
the word Kiengi(r). The English word "Sumer" is usually thought to
derive from the Akkadian form.
The first appearance of Ki-en-gi is in an inscription of Enshakushanna
of Uruk (who ruled approximately 2432-2403 B.C.) , who refers to
himself as : EN-KI-EN-GI LUGAL-KALAM-MA, "the lord of Sumer, the king
In the Sumerian expression EN-KI-EN-GI LUGAL-KALAM-MA, the
monosyllabic word EN meaning "lord" is a form of the Turkish word HAN
meaning "lord", "KI-EN-GI(R)" Sumer, LUGAL (king) equivalent to
Turkish "ULU AGA OLA" meaning "Great Lord Man" compressed into
"LUGAL", and KALAM meaning "land". There is the Turkish word "ULKAM"
(ülkem) meaning "my country" which is similar to KALAM.
Thus the Sumerian expression "EN-KI-EN-GI LUGAL-KALAM-MA", translated
as "the lord of Sumer, the king of land". may also be translated as
"THE LORD OF SUMER, THE GREAT LORD MAN (KING) OF MY COUNTRY" using
these Turkish words.
In the Sumerian word KI-EN-GIR (Akkadian SHUMERU) each monosyllable
word is identified in Turkish as follows:
KI can be identified with 3 Turkish words: a) "KÖY" meaning "village",
b) "KÖY" (göy, gök) meaning "sky"; and c) KaIa" (kaya, gaya) meaning
"large rock, mountain, earth";
EN can be identified with 3 Turkish words: a) "HAN" meaning "Lord",
and additionally, b) "HAN" meaning "palace, palace-complex, house";
and c) the ancient Turkish plurality suffix in the form of EN/AN
corresponding to present LER/LAR. The Sumerian sign for the word EN is
a representation of a "throne".
Thus the Sumerian KI-EN can be taken as: a) "Köy Han" meaning "Village
Lord" or "Country Lord"; and b) "Köy Han (Göy-Han) meaning "Sky-Lord"
which refers to a sky deity ("Sky-God"); c) "Kaya Han" meaning "Earth
The name "Göy-Han" (Gök-Han) was the name of one of the six sons of
OGUZ-KAGAN in the Turkish Oguz-Kagan Epic. And similarly, "Dag-Han",
meaning "Mountain Lord", was the name of another one of his six sons.
Thus the name or title KI-EN (GÖY-HAN), being a Turkic expression,
identifies Sumerians as Tur/Turk peoples.
The third Sumerian morpheme read as GI(R) in the name KI-EN-GI(R) is
written as "GIR" in many sources. This Sumerian monosyllabic word
"GIR" could have been Turkish "GÖR" meaning "see", "GOR" (KOR) meaning
"fire", "KÖR" meaning "blind", "GIR" (KIR/KUR) meaning "country side"
(plains and/or mountains) indicating that it is a word having multiple
forms for different meanings in Turkish, and it could have been so in
Thus the Sumerian "KI-EN-GIR", as the name of Sumer people, can be
identified with the following Turkish expressions:
a) KÖY-HAN KOR" (GÖY-HAN KOR) meaning "Sky-Lord Fire" referring to the
ancient Turanian "Sun-God".
b) KÖY-HAN GÖR" ((Göy-Han Görü)" meaning "Seeing Sky-Lord" referring
to the ancient Turanian "Sky-God seeing all things on earth with his
Sun-Eye and his Moon-Eye". Both the Sun and the Moon and of course the
Sky-Father-God in general were regarded as "all seeing". Only with
the Sun's illumination is seeing possible.
c) KÖY-HAN KÖR" (GÖY-HAN KÖR) meaning "Blind Sky-Lord". In ancient
Turaninan religious culture, the Sky-Father-God had the "sun" (Gün,
günesh) and the "moon" (ay) as his "eyes" but only the "Sun" had its
own "light". The "Moon" was just a reflector (Turkish "gök aynasi"
meaning "sky mirror", or "felek aynasi" meaning "god's mirror") of
sun-rays. Hence "one eye" of the Sky-God (i.e., the Moon) did not have
any 'light" (nur) of its own and therefore did not "see". In Turkish
if a person has lost the sight of one of his eyes, he is called
It must be noted that the Turkish words KOR, KÖR and GÖR being almost
the same is not a coincident but rather by ancient religious design.
Here we can recall, for example, ancient Egyptian (Masarian) prime God
ASAR (Osir, Osiris) which is Turkish "AS ER" meaning "ONE/Peerless
Man" is identified with an "EYE" sign (GÖZ in Turkish) in hieroglyph
writing system.  Similarly the two divine eyes of God Ra were the
Sun and Moon and are indicated with the right and left "eye" signs.
 This equates these sky deities with Turkish "O-GÖZ" (OGUZ)
meaning "that Eye".
Parallel to this expression is the ancient Turkish expression "ULU KOR
GÖZ" meaning a) "Great Fire Eye" referring to the Sun, "ULU GÖR GÖZ"
meaning "Great Seeing Eye" again referring to the Sun and the
Sky-Father-God, and c) "ULU KÖR GÖZ" meaning "Great Blind Eye"
referring to the Moon which has been disguised into Greek "LYCURGUS"
meaning "Great Blind Eye".
Thus the Sumerian expression "KI-EN-GIR" has multiple meanings
indicating the trinity aspect of the ancient Turanian Sky-God concept
as regarded at that time by the Turanian peoples. Hence "KI-EN-GIR",
with the above explained meanings, is a name for Sumerians and their
country formulated after their sky-deities - but in Turkish.
Now I want to bring to the attention of the reader an ancient Turkish
name for a well known Turkish people. From Chinese sources we learn
that ancient Kirgiz Turks were called "KI-EN-GU-EN" ("Kien-kuen",
"Kie-khu", "Kie-kia-se" and "Ki-li-ki-se")  and ("K'i-ku" and
"Kien-kun").  Evidently this name "KI-EN-GU-EN" is very much like
the name KI-EN-GIR that the Sumerians used for themselves. This is not
Now let us examine this name.
The name "KI-EN-GU-EN" ("KIEN-KUEN") for KIRGIZ Turks is very much the
Turkish expression "GÖY HAN GÜN" meaning "Sky-Lord Sun" which verifies
KIRGIZ Turk's ancient tradition of worshipping the "Sun". In the
ancient Turanian tradition, the tribal names were formulated after the
attributions of the Sky-Lord who has many attributions.
Again in this name "KI-EN-GU-EN", we have the following monosyllabic components:
KI : a) in Turkish "KÖY" meaning "village", b) "KÖY" (göy, gök)
meaning "sky"; c) KaIa" (kaya, gaya) meaning "large rock, earth".
EN : a) Turkish "HAN" meaning "Lord", b) "HAN" (hana, hane) meaning
"palace, palace-complex, house"; c) ancient Turkish plurality suffix
in the form of EN/AN corresponding to present LER/LAR.
GI/GU : a) Turkish suffix "CI/CU" (GI/GU) indicating "tradition,
occupation, those who follow a concept and/or belief."
GU-EN : Turkish word GUN (GÜN) meaning "sun".
With this basic information, "KI-EN-GU-EN", as an ancient name for
KIRGIZ Turks, has the following meanings in Turkish:
a) "KÖY-HAN-CI-LAR" ("Göy Hancilar", Göy-Han'a tapanlar) meaning
"those who worship Sky-Lord".
b) "GÖY-HAN GÜN" meaning "Sky-Lord Sun".
c) "KÖY-HAN-CI-LAR" ("Köy hancilar" yani "köyde evlerde oturanlar")
meaning "those who live in houses in the village". This may be taken
as meaning that "living in village homes" may have started in Central
Asia (Turan) and spread to other places.
Additionally, if EN were to change position with other monosyllabic
Turkish words in this name, its new form would be "EN-KI EN-GU" which
embodies the Sumerian name "EN-KI". This new form "EN-KI EN-GU" would
transliterate into Turkish as HAN-KAYA - HAN-GUY meaning "Lord of
Earth - Lord of Sky".
Culturally the Sumerians meet all of these attributions. That is, they
were "Sky-God and "Sun-God worshippers", and also "village dwellers".
Hence, with the knowledge of the name "KI-EN-GU-EN" as a name for
KIRGIZ Turks, it can be stated with confidence that the so-called
"SUMERIANS" were: a) Turanians, b) Tur/Turk peoples, and c) a branch
of the ancestors of "KIRGIZ" Turks.
Historically it is also known that Turks had an empire named "Gök
Türks" meaning "Sky Turks". Thus it is clear that there is a
continuing name relationship between Turkic peoples, the "Sumerians"
(i.e., Ki-En-Gir) and the "sky" and/or "sky-god". Even the present
name "KIRGIZ" of the KIRGIZ Turks is very much related to the
following Turkish expressions:
a) "KOR-GÖZ" meaning "Fire-Eye" referring to the "sun" as the "fire
eye of the Sky-God",
b) "GÖR-GÖZ" meaning "Seeing Eye" referring to the "Sky-Father-God and
Sun-God" as the "seeing eye".
c) "KÖR-GÖZ" meaning "Blind Eye" referring to the "moon" as the "blind
eye of the Sky-God".
d) Additionally with the name "KI-EN-GU-EN", i.e., "Göy Han Gün"
meaning "Sky-Lord Sun"
Thus all of these names for the "KIRGIZ" Turks are well aligned with
the ancient Sumerian name:
a) "KI-EN-GIR", i.e., "Göy Han Kor" meaning "Sky-Lord is Fire"
referring to Sun,
b) "KI-EN-GIR", i.e., "Göy Han Gör" meaning "Sky-Lord is Seeing"
referring to Sun and Sky-Father-God, and
c) "KI-EN-GIR", i.e., "Göy Han Kör" meaning "Sky-Lord is Blind"
referring to Moon.
The name KI-EN-GIR" (GÖY-HAN-GIR) also reminds us of another Turkish
name, that is, "CI-HAN-GIR" meaning "Lord of the world" or "Lord of
the universe" which describes in one hand "the Sky-God" and in the
other any "king" who regards himself as the "ruler of the world" or
the "conqueror of the world". Redhouse Turkish-English Dictionary
falsely attributes the word to Persian,  yet the word has been
part of Turkish all along since ancient times. Many meanings are
attached to this name which are those of the Sky-God (Tanri). Many
Sumerian kings are described not only as the "ruler of Sumer" but also
"the rulers of the four corners of the world". As a "king title", the
name elevates the king to the level of "Sky-God" but also ennobles him
like a "god". The source of this tradition is from ancient TURAN and
Turanian Tur/Turk peoples.
In view of this background information, if Sumerians were the
ancestors of the KIRGIZ Turks, then there must have been other Turkish
speaking Tur/Turk peoples in the ancient Middle East also. It is no
wonder that most of the ancient Middle Easterners had agglutinative
and phonetic languages similar to Turkish. Additionally, when we
examine the names of ancient Middle East peoples such as Canaan-ite,
Amor-ite, Ugar-ite, and many more, we find that the ending "ITE" in
these names is the Turkish suffix "ITI" meaning "it was" or "it is".
Thus this Turkish suffix is not a part of the main tribal name.
Therefore the remaining names such as CANAAN (Tr. KANAN, KAN-HAN,
GUN-HAN), AMOR (Tr. "O MOR"), "UGAR" (Tr. "U GÖR", "U KOR", "U KÖR")
are all very Turkic names, yet they have been falsely claimed as
"SEMITIC". For example the name UGAR could have been an arm of the
UIGUR Turks. Similarly, the KASSITES (KASS-ites, KASh-idi) could have
been the forefathers of the "GAShGAI" Turks who still live on the
Zagros mountains just like the KASSITES did before they established
their Kassite Empire in Mesopotamia.
Yet all of these names have been put under the misleading religious
term of "SEMITE" or "SEMITIC" which wrongly portrays these ancient
Tur/Turk peoples as being ethnically "SEMITIC" - which, of course,
they weren't. The Sumerians, like all other Tur/Turk peoples, were
ethnically Turanians and had no ethnic relationship with the
"SEMITES". When we remove the "ite" ending from the word SEMITE it
becomes "SEM" (SAM). But this word is a distorted form of the Turkish
word "ESME" meaning "blowing" and referring to the blowing of the
"Wind". It is no wonder that the Babylonian Akkadians and other
"SEMITES" were so keen in creating the Wind-God ENLIL (Turkish
"HAN-YEL" meaning "Lord Wind") from the ancient Sumerian pantheon. It
appears that this "ENLIL" (Lord Wind) cult has worked its way into
present times but in a totally disguised way. Of course the followers
of the cult who have not been told the true identity of the "deity"
that they are invited to believe in, have been conned and exploited in
When Genesis 11-1 speaks of: "Now all the earth continued to be of one
language and of one set of words", that unnamed language must have
been Turkish since all evidences point to "Turkish". And that is why
it has been decided that they should confuse this language so that its
speakers (i.e., the Tur/Turk peoples) would not understand each other
anymore. Of course when people of same background are broken off from
each other due to language barrier, they become alienated although
they are the same people. Ancient missionaries must have been assigned
this religious order for doing the required confusion, as they do
presently. It must be understood that if that "one language" that the
world spoke back then was the language of the confuser, then there
would have been no need to confuse it. After all, nobody would want
to confuse their own language.
There has been a parallel to this Genesis 11 situation in modern
times. For example, under the Soviet Empire, the name "Turk" for the
multitudes of Turkish people in the Empire was forbidden from use. In
other words, these Turks were not allowed to identify themselves as
"Turks". If they did, they would be punished. However, they could
call themselves as "moslems" which is an identity obliterating term,
i.e., a melting pot. This was just like suppressing the God name TUR
from Sumerian texts. Additionally, the Soviets artificially fragmented
the Turkish people in their Empire into separate groups - labelling
them as different people with different languages. The reality, of
course, was that they were all Turkish people speaking different
dialects of Turkish.
The conclusion to this study is that the Sumerian name KI-EN-GIR for
themselves and the ancient name KI-EN-GU-EN of the KIRGIZ Turks were
one and the same. With all the evidences discussed above, it can be
confidently stated that Sumerians were one group of the Tur/Turk
peoples who came to the Middle East from Turan and most likely were a
branch of the ancestors of "KIRGIZ" Turks.
 John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 48.
 Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, "An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary",
Dover Publications, Inc, New York", p. ciii, item 1 under "Gods
 Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, "An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary",
Dover Publications, Inc, New York", p. cvi, items 15, 16 and 17
under "Members of the Body".
 Hüseyin Namik Orkun, Eski Türk Yazitlari", Türk Dil Kurumu
Yayinlari:529, Ankara, 1987, s. 426-427.
 "Türk Dünyasi El Kitabi, Cilt I", Türk Kültürünü Arastirma
Yayinlari No. 121, 1992, p. 150.
 Redhouse Turkish - English Dictionary, Redhouse Yayinevi,
Istanbul,1987, p. 229.
Best wishes to all,
(Copyright © 2005 Polat Kaya)