**By Polat Kaya**

Etruscan numerals written on Tuscania Dice

The Etruscan numerals shown on the so-called “Tuscania Dice” have been read as shown in the table below:

1**2
3 4 5 6**

1968 Olzscha *thu
zal ci huth makh sa*

1969 Pfiffig *thu
zal ci sa
makh huth*

1983 Bonfante *thu
zal ci sa makh huth*

1984 Pallottino * thu
zal ci huth (sa?) makh sa (huth?)*

1989 Rix *thu
zal ci huth makh sa*

1990 Pittau *thu
zal ci huth makh sa*

1991 Morandi *thu
zal ci huth makh sa*

List is from http://www.pittau.it/Etrusco/Studi/dadi.html

***

My reading of the Etruscan numeral names written on the Tuscania Dice differs radically from the ones shown in above list. They are as follows:

Numeral:
**1 2
3 4 5 6**

Etruscan *pr (pir)
ci (ki) zal maok isha huti (hlti)*

Turkish
*bir (pir)
iki **üç
dört beş altı*

The numeral 1 which other readers have read as “thu”, I read as “pir” since the
Etruscan name appears more like a PR rather than a ThU. Additionally, we have a
good reference in terms of the Latin term **PRIMUS** for the ordinal numeral
name for "one".

The Latin ordinal numeral name is given as **PRIMUS**, http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/wordsonline.html

When this word is rearranged as **PRIMSU**,
we find that it is an altered and restructured form of the Turkish word **BİRİNCİ** meaning
the* "first"*. The root word for these Latin and Turkish words is the
Turkish numeral name

Similarly, the Latin term

When this Latin term

Like these Latin words, there are other similar terms such as the Latin word

So, in view of all these revelations, it is reasonable to think that the Etruscan numeral for

***

I read the Etruscan numeral name **"ci"** as
the name of the numeral **"two"** which
is **İKİ** in Turkish. For
this let us examine the makeup of the the Latin name for ordinal number **"two"**.
In this regard the following Latin words are given: **"secundus,
secundum, secundi, secundissimus and secundissimum"** which
all have the meaning of * "second"*. http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/wordsonline.html

a) The Latin word

b) The Latin word

c) The Latin word

d) The Latin word

e) The Latin word

Thus, again we see that all of these so-called "Latin" names are manufactured from Turkish words

and expressions, and the root word for them all is the Turkish cardinal numeral name

So, in view of all these revelations, it is reasonable to think that the Etruscan numeral

***

In the case of number "three": the Latin word **TERCI**,
meaning * "three"*,
rearranged as

Similarly, the Latin word

Thus, the Latin numeral names

The Latin numeral name

Similarly, the Latin word

The Latin word

First, the Latin word

The Latin term

The Latin word

Again, this shows that Romans made this so-called "Latin" word

Up to here, I showed how the so-called "Latin" numeral names from one to six were fabricated from Turkish. It is possible that Etruscans were influenced by the Romans and the Greeks in altering their numerals as well.

***

About the pairing of numerals on dice faces:

Etruscan dice, like most other dice, is six faced, and pairing numbers on
opposite die faces, may have been in accordance with the mathematical rule that
the sum of the opposite face numeral pairs equal seven (i.e., 1 & 6, 2 & 5, and
3 & 4). If the die was eight faced, than the pairing of numbers would be 1 & 8,
2 & 7, 3 & 6, and 4 & 5 where opposite faces add up to 9. So this mathematical
rule continues in this manner as the faces of a die is increased. Using such a
rule would be preferable to randomly numbering the faces of a die. Of course,
in a non-loaded dice, the probability of any number coming up is the same -
whether this mathematical rule is used or not.

In addition to this mathematical rule, additionally, they could have considered
the following interesting expression in pairing one and six together on a die.

In Turkish, when we write **BİR** and **ALTI** (1
and 6) side by side, most likely we would think of the numbers 1 and 6. But,
when we write**"BİR ALTI"** in
a religious context, it could be taken as a Turkish saying meaning **"God
is One"**, or **"Red is One"** or **"God
is AL" (God is Sun)**. It is likely that the numbers one and six were paired
together on opposite faces because of
this subtle religious sense as well.

In view of this consideration, when the Etruscan numeral names **PiR** and **HUTI
(HULTI)** are paired, we find that
it becomes very much like the Turkish saying of **"BİR
O'TI"** meaning ** "He
is One"**,

In view of all these explanations, I say that the Etruscan numerals on the Tuscanian die are "1 and 6" (PiR and HUTI or HuLTI), "2 and 5" (CI (iki) and ISHA (besh)) and "3 and 4" (ZAL and MAK (maok)).

Polat Kaya

26/11/2011