AN ENGLISH - SUMERIAN - TURKISH DICTIONARY

Prepared by

Polat Kaya

(September 12, 1997)


In the list below, the English words are the intermediary words between the Sumerian and the Turkish words.

 

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 -ablaitive  Ka-ta  Kapu-tan, Kapu-dan
 -accusative  Ka-n-i  kapu-n-u, KapI-y-I
 -dative  Ka-na  Kapu-y-a
 -equiative  Ka-gim  Kapu-kimi
 -genetive  Ka-na(k)  Kapu-n-un
 -innesive  Ka-ta  Kapu-da
 3  Es  
 10  U, un  on

 

A

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Abundance  He-Gal ... g>b  bol
 Accumulate  dirig  irk (toplamak) [ONT]
 Adam  Adapa  Adam (atam)=my father; (homosapien) ataapa = father's father
 Advice  Gal-ga ...g>b  Bil-ge
 Air  Lil ...l>y  yil (yel)= wind
 Ancestor  Bil-ga  Bil-ge (=knowledgable, experienced)
 Anger  mir ...m>k  kiz-mak (=to get angry)
 Ant  marun ...m>k  karn-ca [ONT]
 Arm  Kar  Kol, kar?
 Ashes  De-Dal ... d>k  kl
 Away from  -ta  -tan, -dan, -ten, -den (suffix)

 

B

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Back  Eger  Eg~er (=saddle)
 Back of head  Arku  arka (=back)
 Band  dib  yip (=ip=string) [ONT]
 Bank of river  Gu ... g>k  K-y
 Base  Ur  Uruk (=family, clan)
 Be strong (to)  kalag ... g>ng  kaling (kalabalik, ok sr; kaln, kesif; ok, saysz, sk, koyu) [ONT]
 Be great  Diri  Diri (=alive with life, energetic)
 Beaches of river  Ki-A  K-y
 Bead  nunuz ... n>y  yin (=inci= pearl) [ONT]
 Beans  Lu-ub  Lobya, Lobi (Uygur)
 Bear  Az ... z>y  Ay
 Beard  Sig  Sak-al
 Beat (to)  Tud ... d>v  dv
 Beginning  Sha-Har  seher, tan (=morning)
 Behind  E-Gir  geri
 Belligerent  Kur  Kr-an (=one who breaks)
 Beloved  Ki-Aga  Aga (=Lord, elder brother, one who is respected and loved)
 Bend (to)  Gur  Eg~ (=bend; Kr = break)
 Best  Sag  Sag~ (=unbroken, in best condition)
 Bird  Mus~en ... m>k  Kus~ (notice the "kus~/mus~" saying in Turkish)
 Bird  usa^an  kus^ (uan)
 Birdnest  us^ub  kus^+eb (kus^evi, yuva) [ONT]
 Birth  Gal  G-bek (=navel, emblical chord)
 Blacksmiths  Simug-A ... s>t  timur (=blacksmith); (temir= iron)
 Blood  mud ... m>k  kan [ONT]
 Blow (wind) (to)  es^  es-mek [ONT]
 Border  zag ... z>y  yaka (taraf, yan, civar) [ONT]
 Border, limit  mas^ ... m>k  kas^ (ky, kenar) [ONT]
 Breakthrough  Gu-Gir  KIr gir (=break and enter)
 Breath  Lil ... l>y  yil (yel) (=wind)
 Bright  zal ... z>y  yal-drk, (yal-druk, parlak, ssl)
 Bright, light  zalag ... z>y  yalng (alev, yaln) [ONT]
 Broker  Dam-Kar  KIr-an
 Brother (older)  Bulug-Gal  Aga-bey; aka-uka (Ui.Tr)
 Brother  S~es~ (Ses)  Kardas~
 Build  Du  Dik (=build a house; sew a dress)
 But  Am  Ama
 Butter  Ia-Nun  Yag~
 By the God  Dingir-E  Tengir icin , Tengi icin

 

C

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Call  Sa  Ca-g~Ir
 Cast away (to)  ku  ko-y (birakmak, koymak, terketmek, atmak)
 Catch (to)  Gab  Kap= to snatch
 Cattle stable  s^urum ... m>k  srg (sr) [ONT]
 Champion  Ur  Er, yigit (= brave man)
 Chanal  garim  arik (ark; irmak) [ONT]
 City  Uru, Ur  Uruk (=family, clan)
 City  Sag-Uru  Sag~ (=complete, whole);
 Cleanse  zalag ... z>y  Yala (= to clean by licking)
 Cloth  Tug  E-tek
 Come  Gen, Gin  Gel
 Command  A-Aga  Aga (buyuk kis^i) (=Lord, one who commands)
 Conqueror  Al-Tar  Tarkan
 Constable (police)  Aga-Us  Aga (=Lord); Us (=reason); koy agasi (=village master)
 Country side  Kur  KIr
 Country  tir  yir (yer, toprak, [ONT]
 Crown  Aga  Aga (=Lord)
 Crush (to)  Gaz, Guz  Ez
 Crush  gaz  ez-mek [ONT]
 Cry  I-lu  Agla
 Cut (to)  Has^  Kes-mek
 Cut into pieces (to)  kid2  kid-mak (kiymak, ldrmek)[ONT]
 Cut up (to)  Sil(a) 12,117  S^IlI (Tele. Tr)=it cuts
 Cut, break  tar  yar-mak [ONT]

 

D

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Dagger  Giri-Ba-Da-Ra  Gir-en (=piercing instrument)
 Dark  Ku-Kuga  Kara (=black)
 Darkness  Ku-Ku (G)  Kara
 Dawn  Sha-har  Seher, Tan
 Day  U  Gn, Kn
 Day, time (in general)  u4(d)  kn (gn, gnes^, gndz) [ONT]
 Daybreak, dawn  dag ... g>ng  tang (tan, sabah vakti) [ONT]
 Dead, to die  us^2 ...s^>l  l (lmek) [ONT]
 Decree  A-Aga  Aga sz(=Lord's orders)
 Deity  Dingir  Tengir, Tengere, Tengri, Tangara
 Desert  Kur  KIr (=not fertile land); Kum (=sand)
 Discernment  umus^ ... m>k  ukus^ (akil, anlayis^) [ONT]
 Disperse, undo (to)  bur ... r>z  boz-mak, yikmak [ONT]
 Distance  Us  Az, uz (az gittik uz gittik gibi);
 District  nanga ... n>y  yanga (yan, kanat)
 Divorce  Tag  Dag~-Il (=separate, disperse)
 Dog  Lik, Ur  br, br, it; kurt (=wolf)
 Door  gis^ig  es^ik (kapi =outside) [ONT]
 Drill (to)  bur 411,104  Burgu (=drill)
 Drive (to)  Hus 565,58  Kos^u (Os. Tr)=wagon, coach ???

 

E

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Elders  Ab-ba  Aba, apa
 Enemy  taga  yagi (dus^man) [ONT]
 Energetic  dirig  irig, diri [ONT]
 Enormous  Diri  iri
 Equipment (for boat)  Su-Kara  su (=water); ara (=equipment)
 Estate  E  Ev (=house, estate)
 Esteem highly  Ig Kal  iyi, iygi (= good); Kal (=stay)
 Evening  Usan  Aks^am
 Excellent  Diri  Diri (=alive with life, energetic)
 Excessive (extra)  Dirig-Dirig  Diri diri

 

F

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Face  Sag-ki  Sak-kal (=beard)
 False  Lul-La  Yal-an (=lie, deception)
 Far mountain land  Ish-Kur  Dsh kr (=outside lands)
 Fat  Ia  Yag~
 Fate  me  men, men menem (=I am my fate)
 Father  Ad-da, A-A  Ata, Atta
 Feet  Gir  Gir (=enter); yr (=walk)
 Fill (to)  du3 t  o-l-mak (dolmak) [ONT]
 Find (to)  Bu-Bu-Lu  Bul
 Fine flower  Zid-Gu ... z>  iek
 Finger  u  Ui (=sleeve)
 Fire  Ag, Bil, Gira, Izi  Kz (=non flaming fire); Ag~ (ak=color of glowing fire, white)
 Flashing eyes  Igi-Gun-Gun  Gn (=Sun, Sun light, day light)
 Flesh  Uzu  Kuzu (=Lamb)
 Follow, accompany  tag, tuku7  daga- (izlemek, es^lik etmek, taklit etmek, emrinde olmak) [ONT]
 Foot  Gir, Giri  Gir (=enter)
 Foot  mulu ... m>k  kl (ayak) [ONT]
 Foothill  Hursag  KIrsal (=unproductive land)
 For  Es  Iin
 Ford  Bala  Balaban (=large bodied)
 Foundation  us^ ... s^>l  ul (duvar temeli) [ONT]
 Free (to)?  gid  id (salmak, gndermek, serbest birakmak, geirmek, ulas^tirmak) [ONT]
 Front  Gaba  Gabag~ (=Front)
 Fruit  Gurud  Gurud (=dried yogurt balls)

 

G

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Garden , field  kiri6  kr (kr, bask, dag~, aik yer) [ONT]
 Garden  Kiri  kir, yer (toprak) =dirt, soil
 Garment  Tug  e-tek (=lower part of woman's dress)
 Gate  Ka  Kapu, kap
 Gateway of the Gods  Ka-Dingir  Tengir KapIsI, Tengri KapIsI
 Gather  Ur  Ur (=a round growth)
 Girl (young)  Ki-sikil-Tur  KIz
 Give (to)  sum  sun- (sunmak, uzatmak) [ONT]
 Glanzen?, hell  zalag ... g>ng  yaling (alev; yalin, sarp,
 Glazed, bright  zal ... z>y  yal (yalov, alev) [ONT]
 Gnaw (to)  Tukur  Tkr (=to spit)
 Go  Gin ... n>t  Git
 God - Moon  Sin?  Ay Tengri (the word SIN is in Akkadian)
 God - Sun  Utu  Kn Tengri
 God  Dingir  Tengir, Tengere, Tangara, Tengri
 God of Air and Earth  En-Lil  Yil (=Wind, air)
 God of Heaven  An  Tan (=Sky); Tengri, TanrI (=Sky God)
 god  dingir  tingir, tengri, tanri
 Goddess of Dreams  Nina  Ninni (=lullaby)
 Goldsmith  kudim ... d>y  kuyumcu
 Good  sag  sag (sag~, iyi, sag~lam) [ONT]
 Grab  urugal  kurgan (kurgan, kale, mezar)[ONT]
 Grasp (to)  Kap  Kap (=pot, utensil that holds something in); kap-mak = to snatch and hold
 Grass  ulia  leng (sulak yer, bataklik; ot, ayir; imenlik; otlak) [ONT]
 Great (to be)  Gu-ul  Ulu ol-mak
 Great  Gal  Ulu =Great
 Ground  Ur  Yer;
 Grow (to make)  Bulug  Bulug~ (=to grow ripe; bulug~ =puberty; to reach puberty; to ripen)
 Guard (to)  Kurum, Uru  Koru-mak

 

H

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Hair  Suhur, sig  Sakal (=beard; Kl)
 Half  s^urim ... s>y  yarm (=bir s^eyin yars) [ONT]
 Hand  silig  elig (=el) [ONT]
 Hand  Su, gis  El, ked, kesi ?
 Happiness  Sag-Ga  Sag~ kal (=stay healthy and alive)
 He is/she is  E-Ne-Am  o-dur
 He/she  E-Ne  an, o
 Head  Rishu, Sa, Sag  Bash; sag-ol (=thank you, stay alive)
 Healthy(be)  Sag  Sag~
 Hear (to)  Gis-Tuku  is^it
 Heart  Sa, Ur  r-ek (yrek)
 Heat, hot  izim ... m>k  isig (sicak, sicaklik) [ONT]
 Heaven  An  Tan (=sky)
 Heaven  Anna  Ana (=mother)
 Heaven  Dingir  Tengir, Tengri, Tengere (=the most omnipotent god, God of all gods)
 Heavens  Shamaini  Shaman, Kam=Diviner, communicator with Heavens
 Heavy  Dugud  AgIr
 Height  dingir  tingir, tengri, tanri
 Height  Gur  Gr (= abundant, dense, high rank);
 Help  dirra  yari (=yardim) [ONT]
 Herdsman  Sipad  Coban
 Hero  Mes, Ur  Er
 Hers  Enene  AnIn, onun
 High as sky  Ul  Ulu
 High  Dingir  Tengir (=Highest as God)
 High  Gur  Gur (=high rank)
 Highland  Kur  KIr (dagli tasli yer) = hilli, stony unproductive land, countryside
 Hill country  Kur  KIr, KIrac (= arid land, waste land)
 Hinzufugen??  tag  tak- (takmak, bag~lanmak) [ONT]
 His/her  Enene  AnIn, onun
 Holy  Kug  Kut-sal; kutlu (=blessed) Honey Lal l>b Bal
 Hostile judgment  Di-Kur  KIran dil (=language that hurts)
 Hostile  Kur  KIr-an (=one who breaks)
 Hot  Kum  Kum=sand
 House  E  Ev (eb)
 How long?  En-She  ne-ce?
 How?  A-na  Ne?, Ne-ce?, na-sIl?
 Huge  Diri  iri (=huge); diri (=very alive)
 Humid  Duru  Duru su (=clean, pure water)
 Hunter  Ur  Er (=man, hero, hunter)
 Hurry (to)  Ul  Ul-as^ (=come quickly)

 

I

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 I  Ma-a  Men
 Ill, hurt, pain  gig  ig (=hastalik, hasta) [ONT]
 Inheritance  Hala  Hala (=father's sister)
 Insect  zibin  cibin (sinek)
 Intestine  Ba, bel=inside  Bel (bil = waist)

 

J

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Judge (to)  Di-Du  De, di (=to say, to speak, to judge)
 Just as  Gim  Kimi

 

K

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 King  Giri  Gir-en (=a piercing object, cutter)
 Knife  Gim  Kimi
 Know how  Zu  Us (=experience, wisdom)
 Know  Zu  Us (=reason)
 Knowledge  Zu  Us (=intelligence, intellect)

 

L

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Lady (heavenly)  Nin-Ana-Si-Anna  Tan ana
 Lady (palace)  s^is^, S^es^  is^i (=princes; es~= spouse) [ONT]
 Lady  Nin  Ha-nIm, nine
 Lady of Air  Nin-Lil  Yelana
 Land  kur  kuru (kara, toprak, yer) [ONT]
 Large (to)  Gu-Ul  Ulu ol
 Large  Gal  Ulu
 Large, huge  dirig  irig=iri [ONT]
 Lay out  nad ... n>y  yad-mak (yayak, sermek [ONT]
 Leader  I-Ku, Ku, Sa  Hakan, Kun, Kan, Han
 Leben??  tin  tin (ruh, nefes, soluk) [ONT]
 Leg  Gir  Yr (=walk)
 Liar  Lu-Lul  YalancI
 Lick (to)  Eme  em (emmek =to suckle)
 Light  Bir, gisnu  Is^In,
 Light  nurum ... n>y  nur (yaruk, parlak) = light [ONT]
 Lighted (be)  Zal(ag) 393,5  Alav (alev)=flame
 Like  Gim  Kimi
 Limbs  Ur  Ur (=External growth on body)
 Limitlessness  Ab-Zu  Son-suz
 Lion  Aru,  Ur Arslan
 Listen  Gis-Tuku  is^it
 Little  sig 592,10/19  -cik, cek (diminutive suffix)
 Liver  Ur  Bag~-Ir, cig~er
 Long for (to)  As^ 2 339,8  As^ ermek (=longing in pregnancy)

 

M

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Make (to)  ki  ki-l (kilmak, yapmak) [ONT]
 Man (my)  mulumu ... m>k  kul-um (kle-m) [ONT]
 Man, manly  Er, ir, ur 50,7  Er
 Market  Kar  Kr (=profit)
 Meat  Uzu  Kuzu (= lamb)
 Merchant  Dam-Kar  Kr adamI (= profit man)
 Metal t  ibira  temir (demir) [ONT]
 Mighty  Agal  Ulug (ulu =grand, mighty)
 Mighty  Kalag  Kalag~ (=wall ); wall of dung bricks set up for drying; military barracks
 Mind  Us, Us^ 4 536,26  Us (= intelligence, mind)
 Mine  Ma-E, Mana  Menim
 Minus  La ... l>m  -ma (=suffix for negative expression)
 Misery  dulum  yulug (kurban, fidye) [ONT]
 Mother  Ama  Ana; emcik (=nipple)
 Mother  um ... m>k  g (anne) [ONT]
 Much  S^ug  ok
 My  -mu  menim, -m (in suffix form)

 

N

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Name, fame  mu ... m>k  k (n, s~an) [ONT]
 Named (be)  Na 97,4  Nam (old Tr) =name ?
 Narrow  Sig  SIkI
 Nibble  Tukur  Tkr (=spit)
 Nice  Sag  Sag~ (=health); sag~lam (=unbroken)
 Nose  Bun, Kiri, Kur  Burun
 Metal t  ibira  temir (demir) [ONT]
 Mighty  Agal  Ulug (ulu =grand, mighty)
 Mighty  Kalag  Kalag~ (=wall ); wall of dung bricks set up for drying; military barracks
 Mind  Us, Us^ 4 536,26  Us (= intelligence, mind)
 Mine  Ma-E, Mana  Menim
 Minus  La ... l>m  -ma (=suffix for negative expression)
 Misery  dulum  yulug (kurban, fidye) [ONT]
 Mother  Ama  Ana; emcik (=nipple)
 Mother  um ... m>k  g (anne) [ONT]
 Much  S^ug  ok
 My  -mu  menim, -m (in suffix form)

 

O

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Oil  Ia  Yag
 Old man  Ab-ba  Apa, baba
 Out of, from  -Ta (suffix)  -tan, -dan (suffix)
 Ox  gud  ud (=sgr, kz, boga) [ONT]

 

P

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Perfume  iduga  yidik, sidik (pis kokan) [ONT]
 Path, trail, road  sulu ... s>y  yol [ONT]
 Patrimony  E-Ad-Da  Ata evi (=parent's home)
 Peak  Pa 295,11  Bas^ (=head); tepe (=hill)
 Peck (with a beak)  Ka-Ka-Durud  Gaga (=beak)
 Penis  Gis  Sik (Note: word reversal)
 People, folk  un  kn (elgn, halk) [ONT]
 Pierce  Zi....Kes  Kes (=cut)
 Pleasant (to make)  Sag  Sag ol (=stay alive; thank you)
 Pleasure  Sag-Ga  Sag Kal (=stay alive)
 Ploughing  Ur-Ru  Tarla (=field)
 Pluck  Til-Til  Yol-mak
 Poem, song  sir  s~iir, trk [ONT]
 Point  Kiri, Kur  Burun (=nose, peninsula)
 Pomegranate  Nurma  Nar
 Pour out (to)  dug  tk (dkmek) [ONT]
 Power (divine)  Me  men (kader);
 Power (to have)  Kalag  Kala (=Fort; Kalag=wall)
 Prayer  Ziskur  Zikir (=pray)
 Prefer  Sag-Kal  Sag-kal=wishing you stay alive
 Priest  Saga  Ak Sakal (=wise man, elderman)
 Priestess  Su-Kal  Ak Sakal (=wise man, elderman)
 Prime, good  sig ... s>y  yig (yeg~= iyi) [ONT]
 Prophet  Nabu  Nebi
 Protect (to)  Dul  Dul (=widow)
 Protect (to)  uru  koru-mak
 Protect, shelter  kur  koru- (korumak) [ONT]
 Push  gid  it-mek [ONT]

 

R

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Rain (to)  Zub  ip ip (Ui.Tr)=Noise made by dripping water
 Rain  s~eg ... s>y  yag-mur [ONT]
 Raise oneself  Zig 84,45  Ik-mak (=to go out or up)
 Ram (Animal)  alim ... m>k  elik (geyik, elik, kiyik; ceylan; dag~ keisi, yaban keisi) [ONT]
 Raven (the)  Kur-Su-Na  Karga (=crow); suna (=duck)
 Reap (to)  gur10  or- (=kesmek, bimek) [ONT]
 Reap (to), mow  gur10  orak (=sickle); [ONT]
 Reaping  gurun6  orum (=kesim) [ONT]
 Reeds  Gi  Cil (hasir = a water plant used for weaving)
 Reeds  Gi  i (= aga, ekin, bitki, orman) [ONT]
 Rest (to)  nad3 ... n>y  yat-mak; yatak [ONT]
 Right side  zag  sag~ (sag~ taraf)
 Ripen (to)  Bulug  Bulug (=to reach puberty age)
 Run quickly  Kas-Kar  Kos~ (=run); kos~ kos~ (=run quickly)

 

S

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Sanctuary  E-an-na  Anaevi (=mother's house)
 Sandstorm  U-Lu  Ulu yel (=strong wind)
 Search for  B-Bu-Lu  Bul
 Seat  dur  dur-ma yeri
 Seat  dur  tr (sedir, oturma yeri) [ONT]
 Seed (grain)  Numun  Tohum
 Seed  Nummun  Su Meni suyu (=semen, human seed)
 Semen  A  Meni
 Send back (to)  Ge  Ge-ri (=towards back)
 Sentence  Di  De-mek (=to speak out)
 Sesam oil  dig  yag (=oil, fat) [ONT]
 Set foot on (to)  Giri-Si  Giris^ (=entrance)
 Shadow  gis^ge ... s^>l  glge [ONT]
 Shallow  sig  sig~ (derin olmaya)
 She  Ananene  Hanm, anaana (=Lady Grandmother)
 She  Ene-E-ne  An, o
 Sheep  udu  kon~ (koyun)
 Shepherd  sipad  opan [ONT]
 Shine (to)  zal ... z>y  yal-dra (az s~mak) [ONT]
 Shine (to)  Zal(ag) 393,5  Alav (alev)=flame
 Sink (to)  Su-Su  Su=water
 Six  as^s^a ... s^>l  alti [ONT]
 Skin  Bar, kus  Deri; rt=cover
 Sky  An  Ta, Gk
 Sky God  Anu  Tangara, Tengere, Tengir, Tengri
 Slaughter  Gaz  Bo-gaz-la; Kes (=cut)
 Sleep (to)  U , Tu  Uyu
 Sleep  u  u (uyku) [ONT]
 Sleep  udi ... d>y  udi-mak (uyumak; ud=uyku)[ONT]
 Small child  sag ... s > or s^ >  ag~a (yeni dog~mus^, daha ty bitmemis^, [ONT])
 Small  sig 592,10/19  -cik, cek (diminutive suffix)
 Smear  Ta-Sar  Sr (=smear over a surface) sar (=wrap, surround, encircle, bandage)
 Sour  Izi 172,159  Eks^i
 Speak  Gu-de, di-Di  de, di (=speak)
 Speech  Inim  Inle-mek (=to moan)
 Speed  Kas-Kas  Kos~ Kos~(=hurry); kac (=run away)
 Speed  kas^4  ka-mak (kos^mak) [ONT]
 Split (to)  Sil(a) 12,117  S^l (Tele. Tr)=it cuts
 Split  Dar  yar-mak [ONT]
 Spring t  ul2  yul (kaynak, pinar, su gz, ay) [ONT]
 Spring  tul  bul-ak (su kaynag~, gze)
 Stall  hum  kom (ag~il, ahr) [ONT]
 Star  Mul  Ulduz, yldz
 Star  Zal(ag) 393,5  Yalduz; (S^ol-pan (Kr.Tr)=morning star, Venus)
 Stay (to)  mal ... m>k  kal-mak [ONT]
 Stinking  gid  sidik (= urine)
 Stinking  gid  id/yid (koku, misk) [ONT]
 Storm  Lil  Yel, yil (=wind), wind storm
 Storm  ud  kad (kar frtnas, bora, tipi) [ONT]
 Strong (to be)  Kalag  Kalag (=wall); Kala (=Fort)
 Submerged (to be)  Gir-Gir  Gir-mis~=entered
 Suffer a mishap  Tag-Tag  Deg-mek (=To touch); tak tak vurmak, zorlu deg-mek (=hit to hurt)
 Summit  pa  Bas^(=head), tepe (=hill); ka-pak(=cover)
 Sun  kid2 ... d>n  kn (gn, gnes^, gndz) [ONT]
 Sun, day, time  ud, dKIN  Sun, day, time ........ ud, dKIN ........
 Supplies  kislah  kIs~lak (=winter quarters)
 Surpass  Diri  Diri (=very alive); Gr-bz (=sturdy, robust, healthy)
 Swear  Tu  Tu (tkrmek) =spit used as insult

 

T

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Tabou  niggig ... n>y  yig- (=engel olmak) [ONT]
 Tail  Kun  Kuy-ruk
 Taste  Su-Su  Su (=water)
 Tears (crying)  Biz ... b>g  Gz (=eye)
 Ten (10)  u  on (sayi "on")
 Textile  Gada, Buz  Boz, bez; boz (= gray colour of textile)
 Their  -ne-ne  Onlarn, -in, -n (suffix form)
 Thick (to be)  Gur  Gr (=dense, thick, robust)
 Tight  Sig  Sk
 Thing  nig ... g>ng  neng (nesne, s^ey, mal, es^ya) [ONT]
 Throw (to)  ku  ko-y (birakmak, koymak, terketmek, atmak)
 Time  ud  d (zaman, mevsim, hava) [ONT]
 To be extra  Dirig  Diri olmak, canli olmak
 To found, establish  ur  kur (tertip etmek, dzenlemek, hazirlamak, tasarlamak) [ONT]
 To guard  uru  koru-mak
 To hit  sag~  ak (akmak, vurmak) [ONT]
 To sweep away  ur  kr- (krek gibi bir s^eyle atmak)
 to be  Gal ... g>b  bol, ol
 to speak  di  di, de (demek)
 Tongue  E-Me  em (=suckle); meme (=breast)
 Torn  dirig  yirik , yarik (yirtik) [ONT]
 Toss away (to)  ku  ko-y (birakmak, koymak, terketmek, atmak)
 Touch  Tag  Deg~
 Touch upon (to)  te(ga)  teg~- (deg~mek, dokunmak) [ONT]
 Trail  Sila  iz, yol (keci yolu) =goat's path
 Tree  Gis  Aga
 Troops  Eren  Eren (Erler, askerler)=troops
 Truth, upright, just  zi(d)  in (gerek, gereklik, dog~ru) [ONT]
 Turban  Aga  Aga (=Lord)
 Two  imma ... m>k  ikki (iki) [ONT]

 

U

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Uncle  Dod ... d>y  Day (=mother's brother)
 Underground fresh water  Ab-zu  Su (sub, suv =Water) (5)
 Uplands  Kur-sa  KIr-lar
 Urine  kas^  kas^-an-mak (atin, buyukbas^ hayvanlarin is^emesi) [ONT]
 Utensils  kabkagag  kapkacak (kitchen utensils) [ONT]

 

V

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Vast  Gal  Ulu, Genis^
 Verdict (to render a)  Di-Til  Di, De =To speak; Til (dil)=tongue,
 Vessel  Bur  Bur-mak (=to turn); buruk (=turned, rotated); burgu (=drill)
 Vigorous  Kalag  Kala (=Fortified, well protected)
 Village  E-Duru  Ev=house; Duran (=stays put, immobile); duran ev = immobile house
 Violence  Erim  Er (=man, soldier, hero)
 Virgin  Ki-sikil-Tur  Kz
 Vizier  Sukkalmah  Ak Sakal= elderman, wiseman

 

W

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 Washing  tu5 ... t>y  yu (yikamak) [ONT]
 Waste land  Su  Sulu yer(batak)=waste land
 We  Menden  Men-d-en (en is a plurality suffix in Turkish); miz, biz
 What is it?  A-Na-Am  Nemene (Azeri)
 Whatsoever  nig ... g>ng  neng (nesne, s^ey, mal, es^ya) [ONT]
 Wheat  ziz ... z>  e (te, samanndan ayrlms^ tahl ygn) [ONT]
 Who  Ki  Kim
 Willow  gis~kim ... g>y  ylgn (lgn agac) [ONT]
 Wind  Lil ... l>y  Yil (yel)
 Wood, tree  gis~ ... g>y  yis~ (agac, orman, dag) [ONT]
 Wooden house  Barag  Baraka
 Wool, body hair  sig ... g>ng  yng (yn, yn smeg~i) [ONT]
 Work  umus^  yumus^ (hizmet, vazife, is^) [ONT]
 Work  us^  is^
 Workmen  Erin-E  Eren (=men)
 Write  Sar  Sr (old Turkish); yaz
 Written document  Petka  Bitke

 

Y

ENGLISH

SUMERIAN

TURKISH

 You  Menzen  Sen, Sin

 

NOTES

1. According to the observations of Prof. Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna, the following sound transformations take place between Sumerian and Turkish:

a. The consonant D, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: dar/yar (yarmak); dip/yip (ip); dig/yag (yag~); dir/yir (yirmek); dirig/irig (sert, kaba, has^in, gayretli, iri, kalin).

b. The consonant G, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: gamar/agir (ag~r); garim/ar()k (irmak, ark, germe, kas^, kanal); gaz/ez (ezmek); gi/i (ag~a, ekin, bitki, orman); gid/id- (salmak, gondermek, serbest birakmak); gig/ig (hastalik, hasta); gis^/ys^ (orman, dag~, ag~a, al, ); gis^ig/es^ik (kap); gud/ud (ox = sgr, kz)

c. The consonant M, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to K in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: mal/kal (kalmak); mulu/kul (kul, kle); mus^en/kus^.

d. The consonant N, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: nad9/yad- (yaymak, ds^emek, sermek; Note: among dialects of Turkish d>y translation is common); nanga/yanga (yan, taraf, rmagn bir yan); niggig/yg- (bir s^eye engel olmak); nigin/ygn (yg~n, kume, yig~lms^); nurum/yaruk (s^k, aydnlk, parlak).

e. The consonant S, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to Y or drops out altogether in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: sig/yig (yeg~, iyi); sig/yng (yn, yn smeg~i); sis^,s^is^, s^es^/ is^i (princes, lady); s^urim/yarm (yarm, bir s^eyin yars); zag, sag/yaka (taraf, yan, cvar); zal/yal (yalnmak, alevlenmek).

f. The consonant S^, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: sag/ak (akmak, vurmak); sipad/opan (koy buyugunun yardrmcrsr, gizir, oban); s^ab/ap (vurmak, aptrrmak).

g. The vovel U, when at the beginning of a Sumerian word, changes to K plus a vovel in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: ud/kn (gn, gndz, gnes^); udu/kong (koyun); umag/kmek (gmek, amurlu bataklik yer); ur/kur (kurmak, dzenlemek, hazrrlamak); urugan/kurgan (kurgan, mezar, kale); uru/koru (korumak).

h. The consonant D following the first vovel of a Sumerian word, stays as D in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: adakur/adak (ayak, iki kadehi, anak, kase); gid/id (koku, misk); gud/ud (sg~r, kz); ud/od (zaman, vakit, mevsim, hava); udi/udi- (udimek, uyumak); nad/yad (yaymak, ds^emek, sermek).

i. The consonant M following the first vovel of a Sumerian word, changes to K in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: amas^/agl (ag~l, koyun yatag~, koyun pislig~i); geme/eke (abla); imma/ikki (iki); umus^/ukus^ (akl, anlays^).

j. The consonant R following the first vovel of a Sumerian word, changes to Z in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: bur/boz (bozmak, ykmak); har/kaz (kazmak); mir/kz- (zmak); sar/yaz- (yazmak, s^as^mak, zmek, yanlmak); ur/z (can, ruh, gnl).

k. The consonant S^ following a vovel of a Sumerian word, changes to L in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: amas^/agl (ag~il, koyun yatag~); as^s^a/alt; gis^ge/klige (glge); us^/ul (duvar temeli); us^2/l- (lmek)

l. The consonant D at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to N in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: dugud/yogun (kaln, yogun); kid2/kn (gn, gnes^, gndz); sipad/opan (oban).

m. "ae" at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to "an" in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: mae/men; zae/sen; s^ulpae/olpan (oban yldz); ulia/leng (sulak yer, bataklk, ot, ayr, imenlik).

n. "g" at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to "ng" in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: as^a(g)/alang (alan, dz, ak yer); dag/tang (tan, sabah vakti); nig/neng (nesne, s^ey, es^ya, mal) m. "m" at the end of a Sumerian word, changes to "k" in becoming a Turkish word. Examples in Sumerian/Turkish are: alim/elik (geyik, elik, kiyik); alim/ilig (hkmdar, kral); izim/isig (sicak, sicaklk).

2. For the English - Sumerian dictionary, sources by Adapa and Ott Kostner as given below in References ESD and SSMM below were used.

3. In this list of Sumerian and Turkish correspondence words, I went trhough a large number of words in the referenced dictionaries and and marked those Sumerian words that I believe are related to or are direct correspondence to the word or words shown in the Turkish column.

4. Some of the correspondences that I located were also given in Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna's book, so in the list above, I marked them with [ONT].

5. In Sumerian writing the word "abzu" is in fact written in the form of "zuab". Why ist it read as "abzu" has no bases for its rendition as "abzu". If it was read as "zuab" as written in Sumerian, it would have a direct correspondence with the Turkish "sub, suc, su" meaning water, fresh water.

 


 

REFERENCES

ONT ..... Prof. Dr. Osman Nedim Tuna, "Smer ve Trk Dillerinin Tarihi Ilgisi ile Trk Dilinin Yas Meselesi",

..... ..... Atatrk Kltr, Dil ve Tarih Yksek Kurumu, Trk Dil Kurumu Yaynlar : 561, Ankara, 1990.

ESD ..... Adapa, "English - Sumerian Dictionary", Twin Rivers Rising Homepage, Internet, 1996.

SSMM ..... Ott Kostner, "Some Sumerian Morphemes and Moder U-A Words", ott@zzz.ee (Ott Kostner), 1996.