A Re-Visit of The Sumerian Name "BILGAMESH"

(A New Understanding of the Name so-called "GILGAMESH")

(BILGAMESH KING OF URUK)

By Polat Kaya

(Copyright © Polat Kaya, 2005)

INTRODUCTION

In this study, it is not my purpose to retell the epic story of BILGAMESH ("GILGAMESH") but rather to give the reader a totally new insight of the name "BILGAMESH" ("GILGAMESH") together with some other names that appear in the epic story. It must be noted that the name BILGAMESH (GILGAMESH) and all the other names used in this most ancient epic story are character names (yazi adlari) arranged in riddles which have served as a model for most other mythological and Biblical names. Although the name BILGAMESH (or GILGAMESH) is not known as Turkish, the amazing thing is that both of these names are Turkish and are from Turkish. In the epic story, the identities of the characters have been described in a way that explain the meaning of the character names in Turkish. For that reason I will give some background information from the epic story of BILGAMESH itself and also from other sources. But before that, let us learn about the word BILGEMISH (BILGAMESH) in Turkish.

The Turkish verb "BILMEK", meaning "to know", is the root word for the Turkish word BILGEMISh (BILGAMESH). The stem of this word is "BIL" meaning "know". In order to 'know' and to have 'knowledge', one has to "learn" all sorts of things and concepts from the time of birth onwards. The more one learns, the more one "knows", and in turn, the more one "knows" the more one wants to "learn" about other things.

From "BIL" comes the Turkish word "BILGI" meaning "knowledge; learning; science; information; wisdom; archaic diviner, seer". Similarly, "BILGIN" meaning "scholar, scientist". "BILGE" means "learned". For example, "BILGE KISI" means "learned man". The modern Turkish term "BILGEMISH" means "one who has become learned", "one who has become full of knowledge", "one who has become wise and acquired wisdom". Thus, "BILGEMISH" is an adjective that can be used to describe a learned, knowledgable and wise person. The hero of the Sumerian epic story "BILGAMESH" or its altered version of "GILGAMESH" was such a person, thus making the Turkish "BILGEMISH" as old as the Sumerian "BILGAMESH" - and even earlier. In order to utilize a word such as "BILGAMESH" in an epic story, that word and the concept that it represents must have been known far earlier than the time that it was used in the epic story. The story of BILGAMESH (GILGAMESH) must have been composed and written at least 6,000 years ago. Most likely it is much older than that.

This we see in the PROLOGUE of the epic story of Gilgamesh (Bilgamesh). We are given the following by N. K. Sandars: [1]

"O GILGAMESH, lord of Kullab, great is thy praise. This was the man to whom all things were known; this was the king who knew the countries of the world. He was wise, he saw mysteries and knew secret things, he brought us a tale of the days before the flood. He went on a long journey, was weary, worn-out with labour, and returning engraved on a stone the whole story."

Thus started the PROLOGUE of the Sumerian epic story of Bilgamesh ("Gilgamesh"), and continued:

"When the gods created Gilgamesh they gave him a perfect body. Shamash the glorious sun endowed him with beauty, Adad the god of storm endowed with courage, the great gods made his beauty perfect, surpassing all others. Two thirds they made him god and one third man."

The introduction of Bilgamesh continues as follows:

"In URUK he built walls, a great rampart, and the temple of blessed Eanna for the god of the firmament Anu, and for Ishtar the goddess of love. Look at it still today: the outer wall where the cornice runs, it shines with the brilliance of copper; and the inner wall, it has no equal. Touch the threshold, it is ancient. Approach Eanna the dwelling of Ishtar, our lady of love and war, the like of which no later-day king, no man alive can equal. Climb upon the wall of Uruk; walk along it, I say; regard the foundation terrace and examine the masonry: is it not burnt brick and good? The seven sages laid the foundations."

From Sumerian sources, N. K. Sandar writes about ANU of the Sumerian pantheon: [2]

"ANU: Sumerian AN; Father of Gods, and god of firmament, the 'great above'. In the Sumerian cosmogony there was, first of all, the primeval sea, from which was born the cosmic mountain consisting of heaven, 'AN'. And earth, 'KI'; they were separated by Enlil, then AN carried off the heavens, and Enlil the earth. Anu later retreated more and more into the background; he had an important temple in Uruk."

N. K. Sandars, referring to the King Assurbanipal, the King of Assyrian empire [3] writes:

"He tells us that he sent out his servants to search the archives of the ancient seats of learning in Babylon, Uruk and Nippur, and to copy and translate into the contemporary Akkadian Semitic those texts which were in the older Sumerian language of Masopotamia. Among these texts, ‘written down according to the original and collated in the palace of Assurbanipal, King of the World, King of Assyria, was the poem which we call the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Not long after the completion of this task of collation the epic was virtually lost and the hero’s name forgotten, or disguised and garbled out of recognition."

Indeed the hero’s real name "BILGAMESH" was forgotten because it was disguised and garbled into the alienated name of "GILGAMESH" which has come to present times. Even the name "GILGAMESH", however, is from Turkish word AGILGAMESH meaning "has become learned", "has become full of knowledge", "has become wise and acquired wisdom". The root of the word is the Turkish "AKIL" (AGIL) meaning "reason, intelligence; wisdom; mind; comprehension; memory; idea, opinion; maturity". The name GILGAMESH is obtained when the front vowel "A" is dropped from AGILGAMESH. Evidently, that is what they have done in altering this Turko-Sumerian name into so-called "Semitic" name.

Clearly alteration of the name was intentional and was with the intent to obliterate the Turanian culture that it belonged to. Changing Turkic names into unrecognizable non-Turkic forms instantly transfers the name and the culture that it represents to the side that the second name belongs to. This is a usurping trick that has been widely used by the ancient Semites and the other wandering groups.

N. K. Sandars further writes: [4]

"The Sumerians were the first literate inhabitants of Mesopotamia, and theirs is the language of the oldest tablets from Nippur which relate to Gilgamesh. They had already irrigated the country and filled it with their cities, before it was conquered by Semitic tribes in the course of the third millennium. They were themselves probably conquerors from the north and east, who arrived during the fourth millennium. The influence of this gifted people, shown in laws, language, and ideas, persisted long after they had been conquered by their Semite neighbours."

N. K. Sandars writes again: [5]

"Because of their wealth the cities were great prizes, tempting to the wild Semitic tribes of Arabia, and to the warlike people of Elam to the east, and to the Persian highlands. Not long after the fall of Uruk, when the Semites had established themselves at Agade in the north, Sargon, their king, claimed that he had a standing army of 5,400 soldiers. Among the chief of his exploits was the destruction of the walls of Uruk. These had been a by-word. Men said ‘Uruk of the strong walls’, and Gilgamesh was traditionally the great builder".

All these indicate that the Sumerians were great builders of cities and monuments which caused the jealousy of many hostile wanderer tribes who attacked, invaded and destroyed their cities at the opportune times.

N. K. Sandars also writes: [6]

"The cities of Mesopotamia shared a common pantheon, but the gods were not worshipped everywhere under the same names. The Semites when they invaded Mesopotamia inherited most of the Sumerian gods, but they altered their names, their mutual relations, and many of their attributions."

Although Sandars writes above saying that the invading Semites "inherited" the Sumerian Gods and then performed alterations on their names, attributes and relations, it was not an inheritance. The problem with this wording is that invaders do not "inherit" what they just took over. The fact is that they "loot" or they steal – but they do not inherit! The invaded Sumerians did not hand over their civilization on a gold platter to the invading Semites – as a father would hand over his estate to his son – which is inheritance. Therefore using the term "inherited" in the above statement is an incorrect and laundered term. The meaning of the above statement is that the invading Semites did not have a "God" concept of their own as elaborate as that of the Sumerians. Semites were the wandering gypsies and the "wind" (Tr. YEL/EL) believers. That is why they had the name "SEMITE" which is a word made up of SEM + ITE which is from Turkish "ESME + ITI (IDI)" or "ESMETI" meaning "it is blowing", "it is wind".

The name is claimed to be from the name "SAM" which itself is the anagrammatized form of the Turkish word ESME meaning "wind". Thus they took everything from the Turko-Sumerians and altered their names, hence an already established Turanian Turko-Sumerian civilization was underhandedly transferred from Tur/Turk Sumerians to the wandering "Semites". By use of a similar trick they also changed the Sumerian language, which was akin to the Eastern Anatolian and Azerbaijan dialect of Turkish, to make a language for themselves called "Akkadian". Among all the name alterations, the Turanian name "BILGAMESH" was also altered into "GILGAMESH" and ever since, it is known and designated by this so-called "Semitic" name. In other words, even the Turkish name "BILGAMESH" was stolen and distanced from Tur/Turk peoples by way of altering the name into "GILGAMESH" and thereafter always referring to the Sumerian story with this altered name.

***

Joseph Campbell, in an internet article entitled "Goddess of Universe" writes the following [From URL: http://mindfire.ca/In%20All%20Her%20Names/In%20All%20Her%20Names%20-%20The%20Goddess%20Universe.htm] :

"Throughout those very greatly troubled times the land of Sumer had been open to both peaceful settlement and violent invasions by Semitic hordes from the Syro-Arabian desert, until finally, ca. 2350 B.C., the mighty usurper, Sargon I of Akkad, carved out for himself with great violence and destruction -- of which his monuments proudly boast -- an empire that extended from the Taurus ranges to the Persian Gulf, which "began," as Samuel Noah Kramer has remarked, "the Semitization of Sumer that finally brought about the end of the Sumerian people, at least as an identifiable political and ethnic entity. . . . His influence made itself felt in one way or another from Egypt to India."(8)

The mutilated Flood text of ca. 2000 B.C. is from the ruins of Nippur, which Sargon's grandson, Naram-Sin, sacked and desecrated ca. 2230 B.C. The Sargonids themselves were then over-powered, ca. 2150 B.C., by a mountain people from the Zagros range, the Guti, who overran the empire and maintained control in Mesopotamia until ca. 2050 B.C., when Utuhegel of Erech, a Sumerian, overthrew their king Tirigan and, having caused him to be blinded and brought before his throne, "set his foot upon his neck."(9)"

This citing from Joseph Campbell also verifies how the Sumerian civilization was Semitized and usurped. Incidentally, the term "USURP" itself is a usurped and restructured word from the Turkish word "AShURUP" (AShIRIP) meaning "he stole". Thus the word "usurper" means "thief". In this alteration the Turkish sound "Sh" has been changed to letter "S" and while letter "A" has been dropped the remaining wovels have been changed.

It is now also known that the Semites replaced the name TUR with the name "MAR" in Sumerian texts. [7] In the name "NARAM-SIN", when MAR in NARAM is replaced by the word TUR, we get the name "NA-RUT-SIN" which when rearranged as "TURANSIN" it becomes the Turkish expression "TURANSIN" meaning "You are TURAN". This again explains how the Semitic king Sargon and his grand son NARAM-SIN robbed the ancient TURAN name and its civilization. In doing that they also obliterated that ancient civilization. Ever since that deceitful takeover of the ancient Turko-Sumerian civilization, the whole world has been conned with endless lies and deceptions by the same group. Hence in that regard, the above citing by Joseph Campbel is an eye opener.

***

About the name "LUGULBANDA"

LUGULBANDA: is described as: [8]

"Third king of the post-diluvian dynasty of URUK, a god and shepherd, and hero of a cycle of Sumerian poems; protector of Gilgamesh."

If LUGULBANDA was the 3rd king of Uruk after the flood, GILGAMESH the fifth king of Uruk after the flood, how then could LUGULBANDA be a protector of Gilgamesh? The answer to this question forces us to think that both Gilgamesh and Lugulbanda are personifications of concepts in the story and have nothing to do with real people. The concept of "personification" is to make an imaginary personality out of a concept used in a story and make him speak and act as if he/she was a real person. In other words, it is a character name, in Turkish "yazi adi" (name in writing), "söz insani" (man in words), "söz agasi" (lord in words). Thus, the name "BILGAMESH" is a "söz agasi" (the personification) of "KNOWLEDGE" (BILGI) in the epic story of BILGAMESH (AGILGAMESH or GILGAMESH).

Similarly, the name LUGULBANDA is a personification of several related concepts of which the hidden aspects need to be explored. The name LUGULBANDA can be re-arranged in a number of ways where we find Turkish words that are relevant to the epic story of Bilgamesh. For example:

1. LUGULBANDA, when rearranged letter-by-letter as "BULGULANDA", is a form of the Turkish word "BILGILENDI" meaning "it gained knowledge". Thus the epic character name LUGULBANDA is related to "knowledge" and is again a personification of a concept. BULGULANDA also is the Turkish word "BULGULANDI" meaning "made discoveries"; additionally,

2. LUGULBANDA, when rearranged letter-by-letter "ULUG-BALAND", is the Turkish expression "ULUG-BILENDI" (ÇOK BILENDI) meaning "he who knew much", and also "ULUG BULANDI" meaning "He who is great discoverer" which is again related to "knowledge"; ... furthermore,

3. LUGULBANDA, when rearranged letter-by-letter as "BULGU ALAND", is a form of the Turkish expression "BILGI ALANDI" meaning "he who receives knowledge" or "He who collects knowledge" or "he who bought knowledge". In other words, those who learn and/or keep knowledge are also the protectors of knowledge and/or the administrators (shepherds) of knowledge. Hence the epic character named LUGULBANDA is a personification of "learned people" and/or the concept of "library" (Turkish "bitiklik" or "kitablik"). But most importantly, LUGULBANDA is the personification of "man’s head" ("man’s mind"). Man’s head protects what is inside, i.e., the knowledge, and man's head is metaphorically the original "library" that each person carries with him/her everywhere and uses it as needed.

The ancient Turko-Sumerian epic story named "Bilgamesh" ("Gilgamesh") is probably the most ancient Turanian Tur/Turk epic story in the world and it was usurped (stolen) by the Semitic priests of Babylon from the Tur/Turk Sumerians.

About the name "BILGAMESH":

N. K. Sandars gives the following about GILGAMESH (BILGAMESH): [9]

"The hero of the Epic; son of the goddess NINSUN and of a priest of Kullab, fifth king of Uruk after the flood, famous as a great builder and as a judge of the dead".

This Sumerian epic story has always been presented to the world by the name "GILGAMESH", however, it is actually written in the form "BILGAMESH" in Sumerian texts as reported by C. J. Gadd [10], John L. Hayes [11] and many others. The name "BILGAMESH" is a pure Turkish word, the root of which is the Turkish word "BIL" from Turkish verb "bilmek" meaning "to know". C. J. Gadd equates the root "GILGA" of "GILGAMESH" with "BILGA" which is the Turkish word "BILGI, BILGE, BILGA" meaning "knowledge". Actually, GILGA itself is a restructured form of Turkish "AGILGA" which is essentially the same as Turkish BILGE. Turkish AGIL (AKIL) means "wisdom, intelligence, reason, mind, comprehension," and many similar concepts related to the mind. The suffix "-GE, -GA" is a Turkish suffix.

In the epic story of BILGAMESH, this name is a "character name" of the story personifying "knowledge". That is why its name is "BILGAMESH" meaning "he who has acquired knowledge". But to acquire knowledge one has to look for it, search for it and research and study subject matter. It just does not happen by itself. Evidently, one Sumerian king also took the name "BILGAMESH" as his title. In the Sumerian texts, Bilgamesh is called by the name "God Bilgamesh", i.e., Sumerian "Dingir Bilgamesh", Turkish "Tengir Bilgamesh". Knowledge is a "godly" attribute and lives in man’s head. The concept of God being wise and having infinite wisdom comes from this ancient Turco-Sumerian source. Thus from the given information, it becomes clear that the name "BILGAMESH" is a personification of "knowledge" (Turkish "BILGI") rather than the name of a "real" king person in the story. Obviously the importance of knowledge ("BILGI") was known to the ancient Turanian Tur/Turk peoples far earlier than the epic story "BILGAMESH" was written. It is only after such a conscientious appreciation of the importance of "knowledge" that one can write a story such as "BILGAMESH" (that is, "GILGAMESH" or more correctly "AGILGAMESH").

Since "BILGAMESH" is a personification of "KNOWLEDGE", here I want to introduce the real make up of the English term "KNOWLEDGE". As I have pointed out in many of my writings, the letter W is a bogus letter having many identities used to disguise usurped Turkish expressions. W is a letter having the fluid identity of UU, VV, YY and any two letter combinations of U, V, and Y. In this case it stands for the combination VY. Substituting this in the word "KNOWLEDGE" makes it "KNOVYLEDGE" and when this is rearranged as "KON-VYLGEDE", it becomes the restructured and disguised form of Turkish expression "KUN BILGIDI" meaning "sun is knowledge" which is indeed a factual statement since without the sun, there is no knowledge possible. Additionally if the word "knowledge" is rearranged as "VYLGE-KONDE", it is the restructured form of Turkish expression "BILGI GÜNDÜ" meaning "knowledge is sun" or "knowledge is light". It is a known fact that knowledge enlightens the mind. Thus these Turkish expressions relate sun and sunlight to wisdom, and similarly wisdom to sun and sunlight. This once again shows that Turkish language is indeed the SUN Language. We will see this relation again later on in another expression.

The Latin word for "knowledge" is given as "SCIENTIA". When it is rearranged as "CINESTI-A", it is also found to be Turkish expression "KINESTI O" (GÜNESTI O) meaning "It is the Sun" which relates "science" to sun and sunlight. Conceptually this again verifies the above definition of "knowledge" in Turkish that relates "knowledge" to the sun and sunlight.

The Sumerian name BILGAMESH is also the title of a Sumerian king. Parallel to that, there is the Turkish name "BILGE-KAGAN" as the title of a Turkish Hakan in Turkish history. Thus in both cases, the Turkish word "BILGE" has been used as an exalting title by these Turanian men.

Another much later Turkish epic book using BILGI in its title is the Turkish "KUTADGU BILIG" by famed Yusuf Has Hacip [12]. In this title the word "BILGI" appears in the form of "BILIG" meaning the same.

Ancient Turanians believing in the importance of "knowledge" (BILGI) have immortalized it most elegantly in the name of the epic story "BILGAMESH" which is the oldest story known to man. In the Sumerian tablets carrying the "Bilgamesh" (Gilgamesh) story, the character Bilgamesh is described as follows as written by Will Durant in his book: [13]

"Two thirds of him is god,

One third of him is man,

There’s none can match the form of his body …..

All things he saw, even to the ends of the earth,

He underwent all, learned to know all;

He peered through all secrets,

Through wisdom’s mantle that veileth all.

What has hidden he saw,

What was covered he unlid;

Of times before the storm flood he brought report.

He went on a long way,

Giving himself toil and distress;

Wrote then on a stone tablet the whole of his labour."

"Fathers complain to Ishtar that he leads their sons out to exausting toil "building the walls through the day, through the night"; and husbands complain that "he leaves not wife to her master, not a single virgin to her mother." Ishtar begs Gilgamesh’s mother, ARURU, to create another son equal to Gilgamesh (BILGAMESH) and able to keep him busy in conflict, so that husbands of Uruk may have peace. Aruru kneads a bit of clay, spits upon it, and moulds from it the satyr Engidu, a man with the strength of a boar, the mane of a lion, and the speed of a bird. Engidu does not care for the society of men, but turns and lives with the animals; "he browses with the gazelles, he sports with the creatures of the water, he quenches his thirst with the beasts of the field." A hunter tries to capture him with nets and traps, but fails; and going to Gilgamesh (Bilgamesh), the hunter begs for the loan of a priestess who may snare Engidu with love. "Go, my hunter," says Gilgamesh, "take a priestess; when the beasts come to the watering-place let her display her beauty; he will see her, and his beasts that troop around him will be scattered."

In the above Sumerian description of the so-called "GILGAMESH" (BILGAMESH), the concept of "KNOWLEDGE" (Turkish: bilgi, bilme, us, akil, bilgemish, akil olmush, akillanmish, agilgamish) is described in full detail. This description once again clearly shows that the name BILGAMESH is the personification of Turkish "BILGI, BILGE, BILGA" meaning "knowledge".

In the above description, when the Sumerian text says: "Two thirds of him is god, / One third of him is man," a reference is made to the personification of "knowledge". Knowledge lives in the godly-creator "mind" in the human head (Turkish "bash", "tepe", "kafa") which is located on the top of the human body. The human "mind" is something that one cannot touch or hold in his hand as one can touch and hold any physical object. Thus this "invisible" yet all potent entity is a "godly" entity which is why the personification of "bilgi" (knowledge), i.e., Bilgamesh (Gilgamesh) is two-thirds god and one-third "man". It is partly "man" because it (bilgi) lives in the human head.

The saying This was the man to whom all things were known; this was the king who knew the countries of the world. He was wise, he saw mysteries and knew secret things, he brought us a tale of the days before the flood" describes BILGAMESH (AGILGAMESH or GILGAMESH) as a person of knowledge who has matured in wisdom. That imaginary person is the accumulated human "KNOWLEDGE" which is expressed by the Turkish name and adjective "BILGAMESH".

All things were and are known to collective human "knowledge" but not to "any one particular man". Hence BILGAMESH representing accumulated "knowledge" (bilgi) is a metaphorical "king" to whom even the mightiest of real human mortal kings bent over in respect and salutation. The names of countries of the world are known to common "knowledge" (bilgi) in spite of the fact that we have lots of living "kings" even at present times who do not know the names of many countries. Of course it was the collective human "knowledge (bilgi) that was wise, and saw mysteries and knew secret things at all ages rather than any real king called "Bilgamesh" or "Gilgamesh" of the Sumerian city of URUK.

The saying: "There’s none can match the form of his body ….." also applies because "knowledge" itself does not have a describable "body" form, however, knowledge displays itself in many fantastic forms that it builds, creates, writes, imagines and puts into the visible world as concrete objects, etc. It is a shapeless abstract concept that can exhibit itself in many ways. Just like the creator Sky-Father-God (Gök Ata Tanri), knowledge is not "visible" but it exhibits itself in many different ways and forms. "Knowledge" (BILGI) is represented on our earth with all the things that man has created throughout its civilization. The ancient monuments such as pyramids, ziggurats, stone artifacts such as Stonehenge, tombs, etc. are the visible remnants of the ancient "knowledge". When we look at these ancient monuments, we are looking at the "knowledge" that imagined and built them. Although these products built by knowledge have endless shapes and forms, knowledge itself does not have a definable form.

The saying: "All things he saw, even to the ends of the earth, / He underwent all, learned to know all" is indeed referring to the realm of learning and acquiring knowledge. Man does that in order to learn what he has to do for his survival. "Seeing is learning" (Tr. "görme ögrenmedir"). It is curious to note that Turkish word "görme" meaning "seeing" is also embedded in Turkish "ögrenme" meaning "learning". Similarly Turkish "görünme" meaning "being seen" is very much a form of Turkish "ögrenme" meaning "knowing". Thus all these give the impression that these Turkish words are not random creations by men, but rather are special creations and are very related to each other. We must also note here that "seeing, being seen and learning" is possible only with the enlightening rays of the sun. Without the sun, "seeing" or "being seen" is not possible - and similarly "learning" is not possible either.

When the story says: "He peered through all secrets, / Through wisdom’s mantle that veileth all. / What has hidden he saw, / What was covered he unlid," it is a description of the way that man acquires "knowledge". Man, using his existing knowledge, investigates all things, analyses and experiments with them and unveils the secrets of nature that have not been known before. This is the way of building up "KNOWLEDGE", i.e., "BILGAMESH" (or "AGILGAMESH").

When the epic story says that: "Fathers complain to Ishtar that he leads their sons out to exausting toil "building the walls through the day, through the night"; and husbands complain that "he leaves not wife to her master, not a single virgin to her mother", this rather allegorical statement has been taken wrongly in a negative meaning by scholars who try to give an evil meaning to it.

Actually, it has a totally different connotation: since BILGAMESH is a personification of "knowledge" and thus "learning", learning in the form of schooling takes the sons and daughters away from fathers and mothers. Similarly husbands and even wives, if they are teachers in addition to being mothers, are taken away from each other. Learning takes one away from the loved ones because while learning, one cannot be with mothers and fathers. Additionally, when the learned ones start building walls, roads, canals for irrigation, castles, etc. they are also kept away from the home.

Of course BILGAMESH built all kinds of walls, bridges, canals, buildings, ramparts, fields, etc. in the Sumerian city of URUK all of which are done by "KNOWLEDGE" (BILGI). A king only pays the wages of the people who make these things. But whoever does these things, he/she uses "knowledge" to do the work, hence, "it is the "knowledge" that does it all. Therefore "KNOWLEDGE" (BILGI) is the "king". Similarly, he/she who has become "BILGAMESH" is also the "king" or the "queen" with respect to those who are not as enlightened with knowledge and wisdom.

Finally, when the Sumerian text says: "Of times before the stormflood he brought report. / He went on a long way, / Giving himself toil and distress; / Wrote then on a stone tablet the whole of his labour", it explains how man and his memory go through all kinds of pain in writing down on stone, clay tablets or paper to preserve what he has discovered and learned and his predictions. The Turanian Sumerians probably knew about an ancient flood or expected the occurrence of a "major flood" event and talked about it before it happened just like scientists are talking about the warming of the world’s climate today. That would be the prediction of an oncoming event by one or more "BILGAMESH" (i.e., knowledgeable) people.

The original Sumerian form of the name BILGAMESH [14], [Hayes], has been intentionally altered to "GILGAMESH" so that it is recognizable as Semitic and not Turkish. The name "GILGAMISH" is a name which is distorted and disguised from the Turkish source expression "AGILGAMESH" (akillanmis, uslanmis, bilgilenmis") meaning "He who has acquired knowledge". In fact the word "AGILGAMESH" is also Turkish but the Semitic cabalists dropped the vowel "A" in front of the word leaving "GILGAMISH", thus alienating it from Turkish.

With this understanding about the name of the prime character of the epic story "BILGAMESH" (GILGAMESH), the reason why it was called by the Turkish name of "BILGAMESH" becomes unquestionably clear.

Here I want to cite the following - which is also relevant to the BILGAMESH story from N. K. Sandars: [15]

"The only remaining god to play an important part in the poem EA (Sumerian Enki), god of wisdom, whose particular element was the sweet waters bringing life to the land, and whose house was at ERIDU, which was than on the persian Gulf. He appears as a benign being, a peace-maker, but not always a reliable friend, for, like so many exponents of primitive wisdom, he enjoyed tricks and subterfuges and on occasion was not devoid of malice. But here he acts as a great "lord of wisdom who lives in the deep’. His origins are obscure, but he is sometimes called the son of ANU, "Begotten in his own image . . . . of broad understanding and mighty strength." He was also in a particular degree the creator and benefactor of mankind."

In this writing, human wisdom is being described but in a rather vague manner. The description brings into the picture the "sweet waters" to further camouflage that he is talking about wisdom. This confirms my insight that the Sumerian EN-ZU (En-SU) meaning "Lord Water" was also the representation of "Lord Wisdom" (wisdom god) in the form of "EN-US" (Turkish "HAN US") meaning "Lord wisdom" or "god of wisdom". Thus in the Sumerian texts, EN-ZU (En-SU) also can be read as "EN-UZ" (EN-US) meaning "Lord Wisdom", that is "HAN-US" or "HAN OGUZ" in Turkish which is also the name of the Sky-God. Thus this Turkish expression, while representing the Sky-God in one hand, is also representing "man’s mind and wisdom" in the other. That is why ANU (HAN O) created "man’s mind and wisdom" in his own image." The source for all of these creational and theological concepts are in Turkish and belong to the civilization of the ancient Turanian Tur/Turk world.

In the Sumerian texts EA (Sumerian EN-KI) is read as the "God of sweet waters, also of wisdom". EA, when read as "EYA" or "AYA", is the Turkish word "AYA" meaning "white light". But "white light" is also the symbol of "physical and mental enlightenment" which is done by sunlight and knowledge. So, EA or EYA (AYA) is also Turkish in origin. It is said that his house was in ERIDU - a Sumerian city. But in actuality, the name ERIDU is the Turkish word "YERIDU" (YER IDU) meaning "it is the earth". The underground "sweet waters" (tatli sular) live deep down in the Earth, while the "knowledge and wisdom", that is, Turkish "US" also live deep down in the "mind" of man, i.e., the "brain". His ancestry being uncertain implies that no one knows who created the original seeds of "knowledge and wisdom". However it can be said with confidence that its original name was in Turkish language, i.e., "BILGI" before it was obliterated by the Akkadian Semites of Babylon and Aryans (Arayans).

***

About the name "ARURU":

It is said that GILGAMESH’s (BILGAMESH) godmother (goddess of creation) was named ARURU. She was the "a goddess of cration, she created ENKIDU from clay in the image of ANU". [16] This is most enlightening because this fictional name (personification) is also from Turkish. It is the Turkish expression "ARAR-O" (ARUR U) meaning "he/she searches" or "it is searching" or by modern saying "it is research" which is metaphorically the "godmother" or "grandmother" of knowledge and learning. Indeed searching for knowledge involves the Turkish words "arama" (searching), "arastirma" (research), "sorusturma" (inquiry), "konusturma" (asking questions and getting answers, investigation), "gözetleme" (observation), "görme" (seeing), "isitme" (hearing), "tadma" (tasting), "dokunma" (touching), "koklama" (smelling), "düsünme" (thinking), "konusma" (speaking), "yazma" (writing) and "isleme" (embellishment). Thus the ancient Sumerian name "ARURU" (i.e., Turkish "ARAR O"), as the name of the godmother / grandmother of BILGAMESH, also gives up its secret identity in Turkish, once again indicating that the whole epic originally was written in Turkish.

***

About the name NINSUN:

NINSUN: "The mother of Gilgamesh, a minor goddess whose house was in URUK; she was noted for wisdom, and was the wife of LUGULBANDA." [17]

The Sumerian name NINSUN in one meaning is the Turkish word "NINESUN" meaning "you are grandmother". Grandmothers are even closer to young men (grandchildren) than the mothers are. My grandmothers were like that. These "wise" old ladies are the source of wisdom in many respects in teaching their grandchildren. Additionally the name NINSUN, as a character name (Tr. yazi-adi), is the restructured Turkish expression "US-NINEN" meaning "your wise grandmother" or "your (divine) grandmother for wisdom". NINSUN (NINESUN) is also referred to as "divine mother" of GILGAMESH. [18] Gilgamesh always asks for her advice regarding his dreams and his friends.

Since Bilgamesh is the personification of "knowledge", his mother must also be related to him in this context. Thus NINSUN is the personification of Turkish "US" meaning "man’s wisdom" (intelligence, mental powers, mind) personified as "mother" or "grandmother". This is also seen from the Turkish words "NINESUN" and "US-NINEN" corresponding to the name "NINSUN". Like "knowledge", "Ninsun" (US-Ninen or simply "US") also lives in Uruk, that is, the "city" of the human head.

***

Goddess "ISHTAR" Sumerian "INANNA"

Referring to achievents of Bilgamesh (Gilgamesh), it is said: [19]

"In URUK he built walls, a great rampart, and the temple of blessed Eanna for the god of the firmament Anu, and for Ishtar the goddess of love. Look at it still today: the outer wall where the cornice runs, it shines with the brilliance of copper; and the inner wall, it has no equal. Touch the threshold, it is ancient. Approach Eanna the dwelling of Ishtar, our lady of love and war, the like of which no later-day king, no man alive can equal. Climb upon the wall of Uruk; walk along it, I say; regard the foundation terrace and examine the masonry: is it not burnt brick and good? The seven sages laid the foundations. The seven sages laid the foundations."

About the name "ISHTAR":

"Ishtar (Sumerian Inanna) was worshipped in the great temple in Uruk, together with Anu. She is the queen of heaven, and as goddess of love and of war an equivocal character.; ‘an awful and lovely goddess’ like Aphrodite." [20]

The name "ISHTAR" was the Semitized form for the goddess of love while the Sumerian version is given as INANNA. Ishtar’s Greek version was the goddess "APHRODITE". All of these names are different versions in Turkish of the words describing "wife", "mother" and "woman". This so-called "Semitic" goddess name ISHTAR has two aspects to her name. In one, she is Turkish word "ESHTIR" (ESHTUR) meaning "she is wife", "she is mate"; additionally the name ISHTAR is the Turkish name "ISHITAR" (ISHITIR) meaning "it lights", "it is light", and additionally "it is enlightenment". Thus in the first meaning, "ESHTIR", goddess "ISHTAR" personifies "wife", "mother" and "woman" who is the "goddess of love" and also the other half of man. In this representation, she is also the cause of all sorts of fights among men who cannot tolerate her to go astray to another man. In this context she is also a personification of "fighting".

In the second meaning, that is, Turkish ISHITAR (ISHITIR), the name Ishtar personifies the "sun" which lights and also "enlightens." Similarly "mother" also "hears" (Tr. "ISHITIR" meaning "hears") her children, and teaches and enlightens them. Man’s enlightenment is achieved by learning and gaining knowledge and wisdom.

The light of the Sun is an inseparable part of the Sun, that is, the Sun and its light are always together (i.e., mates). Similarly, "mental powers of man", that is, his/her enlightenment also stays with him/her. Because they are "mates".

A third meaning of ISHTAR is Turkish ISITIR meaning "She warms", "she heats," and additionally "it is heat", "it is warmth". In this case again the Sun and the Sun’s heat and heating have been personified as a female person. But "LOVE" of woman also excites and gives warmth like a flame. Hence she is the personification of "love and warmth" as expected of mothers and wives. In fact The English term "LOVE" is nothing but the rearranged and disguised form of Turkish word "ALAV (ALEV)" meaning "flame, heat, fire". "LOVE" is "ALEV"! Those who fall in love are metaphorically "on fire" for the one they are in love with.

Thus the name ISHTAR was not a "Semitic" name in origin as they would like us to believe, but rather a term which combined a number of ancient Turkish words into one restructured word which has been portrayed as Semitic. Evidently the ancient Babylonians and their followers have done a very effective language transformation job and conned all of us all this time.

***

About the name "INANNA":

When the Sumerian name INANNA (i.e., Ishtar) is separated as "AN-ANNI", it is the Turkish expression "AN ANNE" (GÖK ANNE) meaning "Sky Mother". In other words, in one meaning "she is the queen of heaven" as Ishtar was described to be. Her personifying the "Sky-Mother" deifies her and makes her a "goddess". Both the Sky and the Sun can metaphorically be regarded as "Sky-Mother" because they are the ones who provide space and life for all living beings on earth and most likely in other billions of "earth-like" places in the sky.

In the second meaning it is the Turkish expression "HAN ANNA" (Han Anne, Han Ana) meaning "Lord Mother". Thus even Sumerian INANNA is Turkish and is a personification of the "mother", "wife" and "woman" concept. While "mother" is mother to her children, she is also the wife to the children’s father.

In this personification she is regarded as "goddess" by calling her by the adjective "HAN" meaning "lord". It is also important to note that in Turkish, "woman" is also called "HANIM" (HANUM) meaning "lady" or "my Lady" but additionally it means "I am lord". The mother, the lady of the home is indeed the lord of the home. In one more meaning in Turkish, the word "HANUM" (HANIM) also means "my palace, my home" where "woman" has the utmost importance. This also indicates the value given to women in Turkish society since very ancient times.

Sumerian AN or EN are versions of Turkish "HAN" - meaning "lord" and also meaning "palace". The Sumerian "ANNA" or "ANNI" as presented in the name INANNA is nothing but the Turkish "ANNA, ANNE, ANNI, ANA" all meaning "mother" and they have all been used in the Turkish language up to present times. Additionally, Sumerian word "AMA" meaning "mother" is a shifted form of Turkish "ANA" meaning "mother". Evidently, the readers of the Sumerian texts presented the word "ANA" in the form "AMA" in order to distance Sumerian from Turkish.

***

About the name "EANNA":

Bilgamesh had built in URUK "the temple of EANNA for the god of the firmament Anu, and for Ishtar the goddess of love". The Sumerian word EANNA is a composite word which is made up of "E + ANNA" where Sumerian word "E" means "house" and/or "temple". ANNA is a name. The Sumerian "E" is a form of Turkish "EV" meaning "house". When we say "TANRI EVI" in Turkish it means a "temple of God". It is most likely that the readers of the Sumerian texts dropped the letter ‘V’ from "EV" and came up with Sumerian ‘E’ meaning ‘house’. It is admitted that frequently, the final consonant is dropped in Sumerian words.

In this regard John L. Hayes writes the following: [21]

"One of the thorniest questions in Sumerian involves the status of word-final and syllable-final consonants. According to most Sumerologists, certain consonants, when in word-final position, were not pronounced."

The consonant in the word "EV" must have been one such dropped consonant in Sumerian texts. If the original Sumerian word for "house" was "EV", then dropping the final consonant "V" from it would certainly alienate Sumerian from Turkish. The purpose of this was most likely intended to distance Sumerian from Turkish.

John L. Hayes also writes the following: [22]

"Many Sumerologists believe that Sumerian had a phoneme usually symbolized by /dr/; its exact phonetic significance is unsure. Its existence has been proven in only a few cases. Because of the difficulties of proving its existence in specific words, it is usually not indicated in transcription; instead, in the standard sign-lists and in most transcriptions it is reflected as d."

The so-called phoneme "dr" in this citing from John L. Hayes is nothing but the Turkish suffix "-dir, -dIr, -dur, -dür, -tir, -tIr, -tur, -tür" which comes at the end of all definitions in Turkish. Once this suffix is dropped off from Turkish words and phrases, Turkish loses its most important characteristic. Evidently the Babylonian Semites, in restructuring and destroying the ancient Turkish language, removed its most important feature from Turko-Sumerian. Hence the presented Sumerian became a "unique" language not resembling Turkish. This deliberate confusion of ancient Turkish was designed to obliterate Turkish and the worldwide civilization that it represented. This confusion also opened the door for the usurpation of the ancient Turko-Sumerian civilization into the so-called "Semitic" civilization. No wonder Babylonians and Sumerologists removed the godname "TUR" from Sumerian texts and replaced it with the word "MAR" without any justification. Genesis 11-1 states this intentional evil act by saying:

Genesis 11-1: "Now all the earth continued to be of one language and of one set of words".

Genesis 11-6 and 7: After that Jehowa said: "look! They are one people and there is one language for them all, and this is what they start to do. Why, now there is nothing that they may have in mind to do that will be unattainable for them. Come now! Let us go down and there confuse their language that they may not listen to one another's language."

So the so-called Babylonia and its overly numerous magician priests had the evil idea of destroying that ancient Turkish language which the world spoke, and in order to achieve that ambition, they concocted all kinds of language alterations which made Turkish into many so-called "Semitic" and "Indo-European" languages which never existed before. In the meantime they described Sumerian which was nothing but ancient Turkish as a "dead and isolated language that had no living or dead language like it". This is how Babylonian-based science was made to function.

Since the temple EANNA was built for the universal creator sky God ANU, (Turkish "HAN-O"), it was therefore a temple for the Sky-Father-God (Tr. "GÖK ATA TANRI"). In other words, a HOUSE OF GOD. Additionally, the Sumerian word ANNA is the Turkish word "ANNA, ANNE, ANA" meaning "mother". Above I noted that both the names ISHTAR and INANNA meant "mother", "wife" and "woman". Thus the Sumerian EANNA (E-ANNA) means "The Temple of Mother" or "The Temple for Mother" where "mother’ is personified by the names ISHTAR and INANNA who were the heavenly Mother or the Sky Mother. In this concept, the universal creator God is both "mother" and "father" which brings in the "duality" aspect of the creator God. Both "father" and "mother" are creators and hence are "god-like" and "goddess-like". It is useful to recall here that the ancient Turanian Tur/Turk peoples were also "ancestor" worshipping peoples. That is why they erected monumental tomb stones for their ancestors.

Furthermore, since ISHTAR represented the Sun, Sunlight, and the Fire of Sky, and INANNA represented the "AN ANNA" the Sky-Mother", the temple E-ANNA was also the temple for sun, sunlight, sky and the sky-mother. Thus E-ANNA was a general temple for the ancient Turanian Sky-God concept that included all of these sub concepts. Hence we see that even the temple name EANNA (E-ANNA) was Turkish in origin for an ancient Turanian religious concept.

Here it is useful to remember the Anatolian (Phrygian) Goddess so-called "CYBELE", also called "The Great Mother", that is the goddess of nature. She was also identified with Greek Rhea. [23] The name CYBELE seems to have been made up from the Turkish word "BILICI" meaning "one who knows". This is verified by the name "SIBYL" which is defined as: [24]

"SIBYL. 1. In ancient Greece and Rome, any of several women who prophesied under supposed inspiration of some deity, chiefly of Apollo, and delivered their oracles in a frenzied state. 2. A fortune-teller; sorceress."

These women were given "SOMA" juice or so-called "crazy-honey", in Turkish "deli-bal", before they were to deliver their "inspired" foretelling of the future. But "foretelling" in Turkish is "BILICILIK, FALCILIK". Hence the name "SIBYL", like the name CYBELE" is made up from Turkish word "BILICI" (> "BILISY") meaning "one who knows", or with F to B transformation, SIBYL is from "FALCI" meaning "fortune teller". Evidently this was a good source of money making in ancient Greece and Rome. Foretelling has been known to be a trademark of the wanderers.

***

About the name "APHRODITE":

The supposedly Greek name APHRODITE is another stolen name from Turkish. This Greek name APHRODITE is actually made up of two Turkish words, namely, "AFROD (AVRAT) + ITI" together meaning "she is wife", "she is woman". Turkish "AVRAT" means "wife, woman, mother". Aphrodite as "goddess of love" is nothing but a personification of wife and woman.

A second Turkish meaning of APHRODITE becomes clear when the word is rearranged letter-by-letter as "PHR-OD-ITE-A" is the Turkish expression "BIR OD IDI O" meaning "one-fire she was". This refers both to the fieryness of the woman and also the Sun. In ancient Turkish culture the "sun" was also personified as a beautiful woman.

In view of all this, it is clear that all of these very ancient Turkish-origin words are at least 6,000 years old in the form INANNA, 4,000-plus years old in the form "ISHTAR" and probably 3,000-plus years old in the form of "APHRODITE".

Hence the so-called Akkadian or Semitic name ISHTAR, Greek APHRODITE and Sumerian INANNA are all ancient names made up using Turkish language as the source. Since there is no reference made to Turkish as the source, this is an indication that an act of stealing and obliteration of the ancient Turkish civilization has taken place.

***

About the name "SHAMASH" Sumerian "UTU"

N. K. Sandars writes: [25]

"When the gods created Gilgamesh they gave him a perfect body. Shamash the glorious sun endowed him with beauty, Adad the god of storm endowed him with courage, the great gods made his beauty perfect, surpassing all others. Two thirds they made him god and one third man."

The name SHAMASH is supposedly the "Akkadian" name for Sun-God, that is, replacing Sumerian "UTU". First of all Sumerian UTU meaning "Sun God" and Turkish "OTO" (ODO (OD-O)) meaning "It is Fire", and Turkish "ATA" meaning "father" are one and the same because the Sun is a creator and Father is a creator. It must be remembered that God is always referred to as "Father" (Ata or Apa). Thus Sumerian name UTU, the name for Sun-God, is a Turkish word. The ancient Turkish words "UT" (OD meaning fire"), "UT" meaning "time", UT (OKUZ) meaning "Bull" and "UT" (ÖT) meaning "to sing" and/or "to speak" are all linguistically as well as theologically related to each other. The Turkish OGUZ and AGUZ concept is embedded in them.

The so-called Semitic name SHAMASH is also a disguised Turkish word describing the sun. SHAMASH in the form "ISHAMASH" is the Turkish word "ISHAMASH" (ISHIMISH) meaning "it is burning brilliantly", "it is giving off brilliant light", "it is glowing" which is, of course, the "SUN". Thus the source of the name SHAMASH is the Turkish verb "ISHIMAK" meaning "to radiate light". Similarly, when the "heating" element inside a light bulb heats to white hot state, it becomes "ISHIMISH" meaning "it is radiating light and heat". The SUN is exactly that, that is, a giant fire radiating brilliant light and "heat".

Presently the Arabic word "SHAMS" for the Sun is nothing but the altered and disguised Turkish word "ISHIMISH". Thus the source for these so-called "Semitic" words for the ancient Turanian Sun-God is in fact the Turkish language contrary to all the denying and disguising verbosity that have been used. Thus even if millions of people are taught that the word SHAMASH or SHAMS is "Semitic", it will not change the fact that the source of these words is Turkish. A falsehood is still a falsehood irrespective of whether it is believed as "truth" by one person or millions of people. A large number of believers does not make a "falsehood" a "fact".

***

The name ENGIDU (ENKIDU):

The name ENGIDU (ENKIU) represents a young man in the Sumerian epic story of Bilgamesh. The following is a description of him as written by N. K. Sandars in his book. He writes: [26]

"So the goddess (Aruru) conceived an image of her mind, and it was of the stuff of Anu of the firmament. She dipped her hands in water and pinched off clay, she let it fall in the wilderness, and noble ENKIDU was created. There was virtue in him of the god of war, of Ninurta himself. His body was rough, he had long hair like a woman’s; it waved like the hair of Nisaba, the goddess of corn. His body was covered with matted hair like Samuqan’s, the god of cattle. He was innocent of mankind; he knew nothing of the cultivated land.

Enkidu ate grass in the hills with the gazelle and jostled with wild beasts at the water-holes; he had joy of the water with the herds of wild game."

Similarly Will Durant writes: [27]

"Aruru kneads a bit of clay, spits upon it, and moulds from it the satyr Engidu, a man with the strength of a boar, the mane of a lion, and the speed of a bird. Engidu does not care for the society of men, but turns and lives with the animals".

These descriptions of ENGIDU (ENKIDU) actually represent the young peasant boys of the village. At a young age village boys were asked to attend lambs and goats in the nearby fields, and later on as they grew older they would work in all kinds of hard work that village life required of them. By the time they were teenagers, they were well developed and powerful. They would tend herds of sheep, cattle and horses, and thus become extremely familiar with them. Young boys in the village were called by the Turkish name "GEDE" (GIDE, GEDA, OLA, OGLAN, ÇOCUK). Hence the name ENGIDU personifies a young man of the village. This we will see below when we analyse the name ENGIDU.

Encyclopaedia Britannica World Language Dictionary defines the term "satyr" as: [28] "In Greek mythology, a woodland deity in human form, having pointed ears, pug nose, short tail and budding horns, and of wanton nature." The mythological Satyr is an imaginary being combining man and goat features.

Interestingly, the Turkish word "OGLAK" maning "kid" or "young goat" is similar to the word "OGLAN" meaning "boy". Additionally in Turkish, the word "GIDIK", or in short "GIDI", also means "kid", that is, the "baby goat". These similarities in the Turkish names for "young boy" and "young goat" could have been the reason for the ancient Greeks to come up with the mythologic name "Satyr" as defined above which is really a putdown expression against the ancient Turanians.

It is important to note here that the English term "KID", meaning both "baby goat" and "child", has the features of these Turkish words, that is, "GIDIK" (GIDI) meaning "baby goat" and "GEDE" meaning "young boy". Hence this English term too has been usurped from Turkish and Sumerian.

With this backgrond information let us now turn to the name ENGIDU (ENKIDU).

The so-called Sumerian name "ENGIDU’ is made from two parts. Namely: "EN + GIDU" which are respectively Turkish "HAN" meaning "lord" and "GEDE" (GIDE, GEDA) meaning "boy". Thus the name ENGIDU means "Lord Boy". Parallel to this expression there is the Turkish saying "GENÇLIK HANLIKTIR" (GENÇLIK SULTANLIKTIR) meaning "one is a lord in his/her youth". Thus Sumerian ENGIDU is a form of the Turkish expression "HAN GEDE" meaning "Lord Boy". Linguists should be able to see how this Turkish expression "HAN GEDE" can be reduced to Sumerian "ENGIDU".

In the epic story of Bilgamesh ("Gilgamesh") ENGIDU (ENKIDU) becomes the closest friend of Bilgamesh which is a true statement because "man" and his "knowledge" are always together and are "closests of friends". Additionally while man, as represented by "ENGIDU", is "mortal" and eventually dies away, his knowledge is passed on to others. Hence it is in a way "immortal" and stays with the rest of the living men almost forever. This "immortality" of knowledge gives a divine quality to itself.

Thus from all of this it is clear that the Sumerian name ENGIDU (ENKIDU) is also a Turkish based name used as a character name in the Sumerian "BILGAMESH" epic story. Evidently the name "GILGAMESH" was an altered and disguised form of the Turkish expression "BILGAMESH" or "AGILGAMESH". These two words can be changed into "GILGAMESH" by replacing the letter "B" with "G" in the first case, or by dropping front vowel "A" in the second one.

The story names discussed in this paper were words that belonged to ancient Turkish contrary to all kinds of deceitful verbosity trying to make the epic story of BILGAMESH a "Babylonian Semitic story" under the altered name of GILGAMESH. These names are extremely important evidences indicating that the ancient Turanian civilization developed in Sumeria was stolen, abducted, altered, confused, rearranged and then attributed to all kinds of wanderer people except the "Tur/Turk" peoples themselves. These ancient wanderers perpetrated a huge crime against the ancient Turanian Tur/Turk peoples by obliterating their flourishing civilization and redefining its creations and advances under altered names that were then assigned to themselves.

REFERENCES:


[1] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 59.
[2] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 119.
[3] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 8.
[4] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 14.
[5] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 15.
[6] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 23.
[7] C. J. Gadd, "A Sumerian Reading Book", Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1924, p. 49, footnote III.1 "TUR is read "MAR" in the name of this god".
[8] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 122.
[9] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 122.
[10] C. J. Gadd, "A Sumerian Reading Book", Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1924, p. 63, note. No. 32, p. 69, Line 32.
[11] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 129.
[12] YUSUF HAS HACIP, "KUTADGU BILIG" (çeviri: Reshid Rahmeti Arat) , Türk Tarih kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, 1974.
[13] Will Durant, "Story of Civilization: Part I "OUR ORIENTAL HERITAGE", Simon and Schuster, new york, 1954, p. 251.
[14] C. J. Gadd, "A Sumerian Reading Book", Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1924, p. 63, note. No. 32, p. 69, Line 32.
[15] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 26 also p. 120.
[16] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 60, 120.
[17] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 123.
[18] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 15.
[19] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 59.
[20] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 26.
[21] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 21.
[22] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 20.
[23] Encyclopaedia Britannica World Language Dictionary, 1963, p. 320.
[24] Encyclopaedia Britannica World Language Dictionary, 1963, p. 1166.
[25] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 59.
[26] N. K. Sandars, "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH", Penguin Books, 1964, Glossary of Names, p. 60-61.
[27] Will Durant, "Story of Civilization: Part I "OUR ORIENTAL HERITAGE", Simon and Schuster, new york, 1954, p. 251.
[28] Encyclopaedia Britannica World Language Dictionary, 1963, p. 1119.

Best wishes to all,

Polat Kaya

28/12/2005