SUMERIAN - TURKISH COMPARISON LIST

(WITH 200 CONCEPT GROUP ENGLISH WORDS)

by

Polat Kaya

Copyright 1997, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

INTRODUCTION

Ever since the Sumerian language became known for the world of the linguists, there have been claims and counter claims to the view that the Sumerian and Turkish languages are related. While some groups vehemently deny the linguistic affinity between the two languages, others gingerly but nevertheless positively admit the affinity of these two languages.

In the following list, a set of 200 English words, numbered from 1 to 200 and alternatively known as "200 concept group Hymes List", and their correspondences in Sumerian and Turkish are given. Under each selection in English, other concepts related to the selected word's meaning are also entered. Thus in the first two columns, we have the English and Sumerian entries and in the third column, Turkish entries are provided.

The purpose of this study is to bring to attention those Sumerian and Turkish words which correspond to each other and/or seemingly related to each other in form and in meaning and at the same time to see if Turkish can pass a given test in order to prove its kinship to the Sumerian. From the listed words given below, there seems to be ample evidence that the Turkish, as members of Altaic languages, have come from a root that also included the Sumerian language. In view of the fact that the Sumerian and Turkish have been separated from each other or from a parent language, that is if they had a common parent in the past, for at least five thousand years, it is surprising to see that there still are many words which correspond to each other in both languages.

It is hoped that other workers in this field will contribute to this list to improve its level of accuracy such that it will make the Sumerian-Turkish relationship an unquestionably recognized one.

At this point I would like to acknowledge, with special thanks, the contribution of Fred Hamori who provided the 200 word concept group Hymes List.

The Sumerian being an ancient and dead language, its present day reading has been done through the intermediary of Akkadian and other Semitic languages. Since language is the most important part of any culture, those who did not live the Sumerian culture that created the Sumerian language would not be able to define exact meanings of Sumerian words no matter how efficient readers they may be of the Sumerian cuneiform writing system. Therefore some degree of inexactness is expected in the definition and meaning of each Sumerian word. However, since the list given below is based on the works of some of the eminent scholars of the field, it can be viewed as up to date.

As for the Turkic correspondences of the Sumerian words given in the list below, I have tried to find Turkish correspondences from archaic as well as the living Turkic languages.

According to Dell Hymes, [Dell Hymes, "Lexikostatistics so far", Current Anthropology, pages 30-31 University of Chicago, 1960], we have the following mathematical relationship between languages that have the same root but separated from each other in the past:

t = log c: log r where t is the time of separation, c is the remaining root words, r is the ratio of remaining words to original. (86 words left after 1,000 years based on tests)

If t = 1,000 years, Nt/No = r**(1/1000) = c where Nt is the total root words remaining after time separation t and No is the number of root words from the root language in the list (time zero)

t/1000 * log r = log c

t/1000 = log c/ log r where logr = log 0.86

if t = 5000 years then 5000/1000 = 5 ; 5 = log c / log r ; 5 * log r = log c or 5 * log 0.86 = log c;

log c= 5* ( 0.93450 -1 ) = (4.67250 - 5); alog c = c = alog(0.67250 -1) = 4.704/10 = .4704

or 47% of the remaining words.

Thus, a language that has 47% of the root words of the following Sumerian list can be a direct descendant of that language according to Hymes. Please note that this mathematical relationship by Hymes was for 100 selected words for which reader is asked to see Fred Hamori's home page.

 


 

(In the list below following lettering is used in Turkish words: s^=sh; ; ; ; g~= yumus^ak g)

ENGLISH - SUMERIAN - TURKISH 200-WORDS COMPARISON LIST
ENGLISH SUMERIAN TURKISH
1 ALL

all

--

as, like, which

all sorts of things

equal, likeness

totality

--

--

kis^

a.na me.a.bi

m

em-nam

man

imin

--

btn, hep, her kes, heme, ham, tam

herkes, barca, kamag [ODes: 613, 661], [AVG, 76]

ham (her kes) = everyone, all

kimi = like

her s^ey =every thing

ta-mam

ham, tm, tamam = all, totality kamag [AVG, 76] = all,

totality

2 AND

and

--

u3

u, (dahi, taki [ODes: 667])

u (ve [MuEr, 18, 19]) = and (1)

3 ANIMAL

animal

--

--

animal

animal

--

animal

--

mas^ 2 s>l

mas^

mus^

a2-lal 2/DSL334

lad /DSL297,3

--

lad /DSL297,3 d>k

mal, hayvan

mal

mal-ak, balak = young of a water buffalo [TDK]

m>kkus^ = bird

lal = konus^amayan, dilsiz, hayvan

mal-ak, balak = young (up to one year old) of animals like

cow, buffalo; bala = young child

balak (balik [AVG, 266]) = fish

4 ASHES

dust, sand, mud

dry up

ashes, smoke?

ashes

--

sahar -h->-m-

s^a

ubilla 2

d

kl, toz

amur = mud; toz = dust; kum = sand

s^o-rak, o-rak tarla = dried up field

kl = ash; bulut = cloud

--

5 AT

at/of

at/of

locative infix

to lie with, be with

at a time, when

--

--

--

-a

-a

-ni-

n n>l

ud, u

ud, u

ud, u

-de, -da, -e, -a

-de, -da, -e, -a locative suffix

-in, -n, -un, -n = genetive suffix (as in ata-n-n=father's)

-de, -da = locative suffix meaning at.

-le, -la = suffix for togetherness.

d = time [ODes: 466,467], [ONT: 12]

d-en = this year, [ODes: 466,467], [ONT: 12]

d-le (yle, gn ortasi [IBML, 56] = noon

6 BACK

back

give birth

dark, afraid

nakedness

--

back

back, spine

--

eg~er

mud

mud

mug 2

--

has^ 4

ed-in

geri, arka, bel

geri = back; eg~er = saddle

dogur-mak

kara; korku

em, im (soyunma, yikanma, yuzme [IZEy, 139]) = naked,

bathing, undressing; em-re-mek = to undress

arka

bel, bel kemigi

7 BAD

bad

--

--

hul

gig g>t

kt, fena [fana]

l = die; lm = diying

kt

8 BARK

peel, pare, shell

--

--

--

skin

skin

--

bar b>t

bar b>s

--

bar

kus

kus

kabuk, kavuk

ter (kabuk, ince kabuk [IZEy, 655]) = shell; bark of a tree

sar- = to envelope, to wrap;

sar-g = bandage; sar-k= wrapped around, turban;

brk (kalpak) = leather hat

kas (kabuk, deri, tulum [IZEy, 381]

ks^r = bark, peel, crust, rind [RDH1]

9 BECAUSE

because, expose

by, through,

because of

because

--

bar

de

de

mu

n, nk

n, nk

--

--

--

10 BELLY

heart, womb

blood, vessel

suck

--

mb s^a3.g s>b

su

sub

karn/garin

bag~-r, rek, yrek = heart;

su = water, river, rivulet ; damar

suv = water

11 BIG

big

big, great

--

--

--

mould, hill

big, high, large

--

gal

kur, gur

kur, gur

--

kur, gur

kur, gur

mah

byk, ulu [ulug], bedk [AVG, 267]

gala (ulu, kala, kale) = big wall, fortress;

kur-ul-tay = summit (big) meeting; ulu = big, great

kur-mak = to establish an organization, to set up, to

organize

kur = row, file, tier, course of masonry [RDH1]

kur-gan, tepe (tp [MuEr, 134]) = mould, hill.

--

12 BIRD

bird

--

mus^en m>k

kus^

kus^ = bird

13 BITE

bite

--

har (chew) h>s

dis^le, isir

isir, ez, ig~ne

14 BLACK

black

--

--

g~i 6-g, ku10.g

g~i 6-g, ku10.g

kara

kara

gk, kk = dark blue, sky; gk/kk = night

15 BLOOD

blood

blood; carnivoure

--

mud

uri

kan, (soy, sop, bir soydan gelen, [IZEy, 370])

kan

yr-ek/r-ek = heart;bri, kurt = wolf (carnivore)

16 TO BLOW

to blow

--

--

--

blow, kindl

.burn, roast

blow, shine,

blister

--

bug~ g>v

--

--

--

bul 4, bu 5

bil

bun 2, bu 7

--

flemek, pvlemek [UYAT, 200]

puv-di-gen (fleyen [UYAT, 200] = one who blows

puv-/fle- = to blow; r-mek (s^is^irmek, flemek

[AVG, 306])

bug~u = vapour, misty air that comes out when blowing.

yakmak, tutus^turmak, flemek

pis^irmek = to cook

--

--

17 BONE

bone

skull bone,

skeleton, corpse

side, rib

tooth, teeth, ivory

bone, knee, joint

--

--

--

g~ir3.pad.du

ugu

e ad 3,6, adda 2

ti

z

kak

--

--

kemik, sngk [IZEy, 615]

geri = back; ka-bur-ga = rib;

bas^ tasi = skull; tepe = top of head;

adam (l); ata = ancestor

ka-bur-ga = rib;

ez = crush; dis^ = tooth

kemik = bone; diz = knee;ek = joint.

keg-r-ek/geg-r- ek (Yumus^ak kemik, kk-r-dak

[IZEy, 273]) = lower rib [RDH1]

X1 BREAST

breast. chest

--

breast (female)

--

gaba

--

ubur

meme

gaba-k (n, kz-lk, bekaret [HNO, 832]) = front; virginity

koyun (kucak) = bosom, breast, chest [RDH1,677]

br = breast (Tunguz, Mongol [FH])

18 TO BREATHE

breath,

breath, wind

--

--

zi

lil l>y

lil l>y

nefes almak, soluk almak

so-luk, nefes

yil , yel = wind, air

yel-ek = wind maker; wing feathers, quill

19 TO BURN

to burn, roast

--

burn,burning

--

fever, burn

--

--

--

fever, burn

--

bil

--

gi-bil

ma5

tab

--

--

--

tab b>v

yan-mak / yak-mak

l-t-mak (l-, ln-, lk ol-, sn- [IZEy, 331] = to heat to

a warm state.

bil-gn (proto Altaic [FH]) = warm hot.

s -cak, k z-g n

tav-la-mak (demiri dvlebilmesi icin belirli bir dereceye

kadar kzdrmak, stmak, yakmak) = to heat iron (or other

material also) to proper degree so that it can be shaped by

beating. (Turkish proverb: "demir tavinda dvlr")

tav-l (scak, s) = heat, heated

20 CHILD

child

--

child

baby, small

donkey foal

small, young

small, child

young animals

--

child, son

child, son

--

offspring, sprout

--

dumu

--

banda2/3 -nd->-l-

didi d>b

dur r>g

har h>k

tur t>k

mas^ s^>l

mas^ m>b

pes^

pes^

--

isim 2,3

cocuk, bala, yavru, bebek, (civciv, dana, kuzu)

damiz-lik (dl, tohum) = young animal kept for

breeding, seed (a child is exactly this)

bala = young child

bebe = baby

ko-dug~, sipa

kr-pe = young

kr-pe = young; bala = small child

mal-ak, bal-ak = young animal, cub, buffalo calf [RDH1]

bala (kus^ ve hayvan yavrusu [IZEy, 149])

pi = bastard child

pes^e (pas^a= ilk dogan erkek ocug~un takma ad

[IZEy, 76]) = nick name of first child (son) among Turks.

--

X2 CLAW, NAIL

scribe ?

Write

--

scratch, incise

cross plow

--

umbisa

sar

--

hur h>s

gib g>

tirnak, cirnak

bitikci [AVG, 269] = writer, scriber

sr ([IZEy, 616])= scribe, plow, drive

yad, yaz, yay y>z>d [IZEy, 742] = write

sr = plow a field; drive

iz-mek = to scratch

21 CLOUD

cloud

eclipsed, darkened

--

soak, cloud

to pass over

mistiness

--

du-gud

gid-im6

--

lum m>t

bra

pir r>s

bulut, duman, sis, pus, buhar

du-man, bu-har, bulut

bulanmak (sislenmek,bulutlanmak [IZEy,106]) = to become misty,

to become cloudy, to become non-transparent

bu-lut (bulit [AVG, 270] = cloud

--

pus = mist

X3 CLOTHING

clothing

clothing

--

--

--

--

to dress

ornament

to dress

to spin

--

excellent, valuable

remove, cast off

linen,

undergarment

cloth crown?

--

thing

leather dresser

type of weaver

vestments (gods

& rulers)

--

tug2

tug2

tug2

tug

tug

--

l

ul

mur, mu-

sur 8 s>b

sur 8

kala

s^ub -b>-m

gadda

gadda

kendu

--

nig

as-gab g>p

hb

pala

--

giysi, elbise, tak, s^al, aba, aspap, paltar

tok-u/dok-u = woven objects

tok-u-mak/dok-u-mak = to weave textile

tak-in-mak = to wear jewelry

tu-man = long wide drawers or trousers;

tug~ = horse-hair pennant, horsetail attached to a helmet or

flag-staff [RDH1].

al-lar giymek = to put on red or colorful dresses, decorate oneself

al = ornament, colorful attachment

r-tn-mek = to dress, to cover oneself

bur-mak = to twist, to spin

sar-mak = to wrap around

Kal-ak = woman's ornamented headgear [RDH1, 584]

em-re; (emrek [IZEy, 139]) = naked

keten (kettan[RDH1, 646]) = flax fiber, linen cloth;

keten (kettan[RDH1, 646]) = flax fiber, linen cloth;

kendir = rope made of hemp plant; kendir bezi = hempen cloth

[RDH1, 638]

s^ey, nes-ne

as-pap = clothing

aba = type of rough cloth, cloak

pal-tar = cbbe; pal-a= long quilted saddle-cloth [RDH2]

--

22 COLD

cold

cold

--

s^ed 7/10/11

s^ed 7/10/11

sog~-uk, s^-ms^, (l-ms^)

s^-ms^, sog~-uk,s^ = cold

sazak (sog~-uk esen yel, poyraz, sert yel, [IZEy, 589]) = cold wind;

23 TO COME

to come

walk, go

--

lead away

--

g~en. -n>-l

du,

(e).re7.er, su8.b]

ir10

gel/kel

gel

gel, git

y-r-yr = he walks

y-r-ys^ = walk, travel

X4 TO COOK

to boil

--

s^eg~6

pis^irmek, kaynatmak, s-t-mak

-sg~/st = heat; st-mak = to heat

24 TO COUNT

count, calculate

one

equate, compare

--

s^id d>y

za

s

saymak

say; sayi = number; es^it = equal, same

sa-y = number

es^it = equal, same

25 TO CUT

separate,

cut off

breach a dike

snip, cut, trim

reap, harvest, shear

to cut, break

--

--

kud, ku 5

kud, ku 5 d>s

kud, ku 5

guru 5

ur 4

tar

tar t>h

kesmek, zmek, koparmak

ko-p-ar = separate, break off; hud-ut = border,

kes = cut off

ged-ik, kr-k, yar-k = breach, opening

kr = snip; kes = cut, trim

or-ak = sickle; har-man = harvest

ta-ra-mak = to comb, mow down;

har-man = harvest

X5 TO DANCE

to dance

--

e.ne..dug4 [?]

oynamak

oyna = dance; oyna-dk = we danced

26 DAY

day, sun, time

--

--

--

--

break of the day,

shine

--

ud, u 4

--

--

--

--

bar 6,7

bar 6,7 b>p

kn, gn (kin, kan)

t/ot/od(ates^ [IZEy, 703]) = fire;

t-mek/t-i-mek (yakmak [IZEy, 703]) = to burn

d (zaman [HNO, 825]) = time

d-le/y-le = noon time

kn, gn = sun, day

gna-g~ar-mas = day break

par-la-mak

27 TO DIE

blood, die, dead

--

die, dead

--

die, kill

die, kill

destroyed, bent

netherworld

die, destroy, bent

--

--

us^2

us^2

us^2

--

ug 5,7,8

hul

gil l>r

hil-ib

gr

--

lmek

u-yu = sleep;

es-ki = old, broken, used up.

us-lu (sakin, sessiz) = unmoving, voiceless;

us-lu dur = don't make any move or noise

u (uyku [HNO, 873]) = sleep

l = die; l-dr = kill

kr-k = broken, destroyed; eg~-ri = bent

obir dnye, yer alt

kr = break, destroy, kill;

kr-gn = desease

28 TO DIG

dig up, quarry

--

quarry

quarry

dig, scrape

plough land

clay pit, pit

field (cultivated)

--

ba.al

bal b>s

bal b>s

bal

dun, du 24

si

isi

as^-ag

kaz-mak, es^-mek, bl-mek

bl = divide or break into pieces

sal(byk kaya) = big stone; rock

tas^ ocag~ = quarry

bal-ta = hatchet, ax (a tool perhaps also used in quarry)

--

iz = scratch; es^= to dig

--

es^-eg (es^ilmis^ yer), tarla; as^ = food

29 DIRTY

to be dirty

to clean wool

clay, mud

wastes, animal pen

--

--

lump of clay

--

pil -l>-s

pes^ 5,6

imi, em

kis-im 2,3,5

--

--

gir-in

kirli, pis

pis olmak

pis = dirty

a-mur = mud

ps^-k/fus^-ku, pis-lik;

kes-ek (ker-me, kesilerek kurutulmus^ koyun

ds^ks, tezek) = sheep waste (14).

kir = dirt;

30 DOG

dog, carnivour

dog, carnivour

dog, carnivour

dog, carnivour

guard

blood

fox

barking (dog)

--

ur

ur

ur

ur r>l

ur

ur

ka 5 a

gu g>l

it, kpek, kurt, bri, barak

kurt, bri = wolf; it = dog r>t?;

r-mek = barking of a dog;

ur-la-mak (hirlamak) = to growl

ulu-mak = howling of a dog;

koru-mak (one way of guarding is with a dog);

r-ek (yrek) = heart;

kan-gal, ka-ra-bas^= Anatolian sheep dogs;

ulu-mak = howling of a dog; r-mek = barking of a dog.

31 TO DRINK

to drink, to irrigate

irrigate

thirst, drink beer

--

nag~, na 8

in-gar

imma m>

imek, emmek, sormak

i-mek; su-la-mak = to irrigate

su-la = irrigate

ime = mineral waters; emik = suckle

32 DRY

dried fish, dried

dry up

dry up

dry up, misty

--

had

s^a

lah, ah

bir

kuru, karak (kurak) [ODes]

kuru-mus^ = dried up

s = heat

ku-rak

kuru-mus^ = dried up

33DULL

to soften

--

ten

kr, kesmez, skc

yumu-s^at-mak

34 DUST

earth, dust, sand, mud

dust

arrid, dry land

--

sahar -h->-m-

ukum

par-im p>

toz, kum, toprak, amur

yer = earth; a-mur = mud; toz = dust

kum = sand

or-ak = arid, barren

35 EAR

ear

--

--

hear

hear, understand

--

g~es^ tug 2

tug 2

--

g~es^

g~es-tu

kulak

es^it = hear;

tuy/duy (duyma, sezme, kavrama, anlama, is^itme [IZEy, 207])

= feeling, intuition, hearing, understanding

es^it = hear;

es^it (anla);

36 EARTH

earth, place, where

--

--

clay, wetland

swamp

earth, dust

earth (bur=dust, dirt)

--

ki

--

--

im

um-un 5,6,11

sahar

s^u-bur

dnye, yer, kara, toprak

yer, kara, toprak;

kt-ki ( tepe, daglik yer, toprak yigini [IZEy, 441]) = hill,

mountainous place, pile of dirt.

a-mur, balik

bat-ak, um-luk

--

--

37 EAT

eat

--

feed, nurse

to take in

feast

festival, feast

--

gu7

--

k

ku 4

nu

ez-en

ye, yut

yut = swallow;

gut = gulping sound that one makes as one swallows food.

em-dir

ka-pu = gate; kap-mak = to snatch

n = voice, noise; s^en-lik (bayram) = feast

es-en = health and happiness

38 EGG

egg

--

--

nunuz

--

yumurta, tohum, dl

yumur-ta (tl, dl, to-hum) = egg

yumur (yuvarlak) = round

X6 EIGHT

eight

--

ussu [us-sa-am]

sekiz

se-kiz = 8

39 EYE

eye, see

face, front

see through

--

igi

igi

sim

gz, kz

gz = eye; gr-mek = to see; kr = blind

yz (g>y) = face; ng/n = front;

cam = glass

40 TO FALL

fall

fall, cast down

evening (setting sun)

--

s^ub

sus 2, su 2,3

us-an

ds^mek, yklmak, kmek

ds^mek

sus-turul-mak = silented, fallen

ak-s^am = evening

41 FAR

far

long, distant

long, distant, remote

distance

to go

to go

far

--

bad.r

gid

sud 4, su

us

ma3

ul.li 2

ri

uzak

uzak

uz-un = long; git = go

uz-un = long; uz-ak = far, distant, remote

uz-ak-lk

--

--

-ri, -ru = directional suffix

42 FAT, GREASE

fat, grease

--

i3, ia

yag~

yag~ = oil, fat

43 FATHER

father

--

--

father, elder

--

--

a.a, ad.da d>t

--

--

abba b>p

--

ata, apa, baba, dede

ata = father; dede = grandfather

atam = my father, my ancestors

adam (insan) = human

apa = father, old man;

baba = father, old man

44 TO FEAR

terrify, tremble

--

frightened, nervous

fear ?

enemy, tremble

--

hu.luh

--

bu.luh

ni, ni2 (fear)

ur

korkmak, dehs^et duymak, kuruntu yapmak, titremek

bayl-mak = to faint; korkut-mak = to terrify;

titre-mek = to tremble

bayil-mis^ = fainted

--

er = man, soldier

45 FEATHER

feather

--

pa[.mus^en]

kus^ ty, telek, yelek

kus^ty = down feathers

46 FEW

to be few, etc

empty, destitute

low, small, weak

--

narrow

--

la2

sud, su

sig

--

sig 9, si

az

al (kar) = take away

-siz, -suz = suffix for emptiness

sk (kk ) = tight; kk = small; za-yf = weak;

-cik, -ck = diminutive suffix

sk = tight

 
ENGLISH SUMERIAN TURKISH
47 TO FIGHT

--

struggle, fight,

quarrel

to be angry

battle

war

hostility, war

--

--

du 14

du 14

dug, duk

me3

gudibir

gug 5

atis^-mak, didis^-, dvs^-, gres^-, sngs^- [HNO, 854],

savas^-, vurus^-

didis^ = struggle; dvs^ = fight;

dvs^ = quarrel

dv-mek = to beat

--

harp, cenk = battle, war

gr-es^-mek = to wrestle

48 FIRE

fire

strike,

start a fire

fever

beam, ray

--

izi

tag t>

tag t>

dih2

dalla

ot/od, atas^

s = heat; kz-gn = hot;

ak-mak = drive a nail by striking

ak-mak (tas^)= flint stone

--

--

49 FISH

fish

a fish ?

--

ku6, ha h>b

gir

balk

bal-k = fish

sn-ger = sponge

50 FIVE

five

--

ia2

bes^, bis^

bes^, bis^ = 5

51 TO FLOAT

bridge, ferry

float

--

waterfowl

--

id-dir

dirig -g>-n

--

us

yzmek

kpr

derin (tering [AVG, 299, IZEy,180]) = deep water;

dur-an = not moving

kaz = goose

52 TO FLOW

ditch, drain

--

--

flow, pour, spout

--

--

--

--

sur, zal

--

--

sur 8

sur 8

sur 8

zal?

akmak

sur (duvar) = surrounding wall; arik (ark, irmak, su yolu

[IZEy, 37]) = ditch

ar-ku (nehir, dere [AVG, 261]) = river, brook

suv (su) = water, river;

sr = push, move something forward;

sr = move animals from one area to another

sal = raft

53 FLOWER

fruit, flower

--

--

gurun

sar (plant)

iek

yemis^, meyve; iek

--

54 TO FLY

to fly

a flying insect

--

dal

nim n>s

umak

umak; dal = fly (Mongol) [FH]

cibin, mil-ek = fly

55 FOG

fog, mist, haze

eclipsed, darkened

mistiness

--

muru 9 m>b

gid-im 6

bir r>s

duman, en, pus, sis, bulut

bulut = cloud, fog

--

pus (sis, duman [IZEy, 561]) = mist

56 FOOT

foot

foot race

--

g~iri3

dal

ayak, adak

gir = enter; yr= walk

kos^u

57 FOUR

four, female

--

limmu 2,4,5

drt

drt = 4 ; eme = woman

58 TO FREEZE

to freeze

--

s^eg~4 [?]

donmak

sog~-uk = cold; don-mak = to freeze

59 FRUIT

fruit

--

--

gurun

--

yemis^, meyve

kurut (kurutulmus^ yogurt [IZEy, 450] = dried yogurt balls;

kuru yemis^ = dried fruits; ku-rut-mak = to dry

X7 FULL

fill, full, increase

to be full

--

--

si

de

de

do-lu

sil-me (ag~zna kadar dolu) = full up to the brim

doy-mak = to be full;

dol-dur-mak = to fill

60 TO GIVE

to give

bear, give birth

give, pay, apportion

--

sumu

tu, tud

ba

vermek, sunmak

sun-mak = to give, to deliver

ta-s^i-mak = to bear; tog~ur-mak = to give birth [IZEy, 193]

bar (ver) = give; de = pay;

61 GOOD

glad (Gordon)

good, fine, strong

mild, silent, good

good, true, firm

to be good, healthy

sweet, good, glad

good, pleasant

--

dug3 d>y

es-ig, esi

s^ig 5 g>s

zi, zid d>g

sil-im

dug, du 10

sa 6

iyi, yeg~, edg, esen

yeg~, edg = good [HNO, 791, 890]

edg (iyi) = good, fine

ses-siz = silent

sag~= good, true

--

tat-li; edg = good

sag~ (sag~-lam) = in good state, unbroken or undamaged

62 GRASS

grass

folliage, buds

sprout, shoot

--

u2

pa

bil

ot, imen

ot; (nebat, ekin, orman [AVG, 273]) = plant, growing grain, forest

fi-liz = new shoots, buds

fi-liz = sprout, shoots

63 GREEN

yellow-green

blue

--

sig7

gin3

yas^il, yes^il (ter yes^illik [IZEy, 655])

sar = yellow

gk = blue, sky

64 GUTS

intestines, gut

lower abdomen

stomack, pouch

--

s^a 3.g, s^a

has^

tun

bag~irsak, barsak, kursak

bag~irsak

karn

tor-ba = pouch, bag

65 HAIR

body hair

head hair

--

beard

--

tail

shaggy hair, long

--

su

suhur h>k

suhur

sul, su 6

--

kun n>y

guz

sa, sakal, kl

kl = body hair

sa-kl = beard; sa = head hair

--

sa-kal = beard;

sal, al (yas^l kimse [KTLS, 974]) = old (man)

kuy-ruk

yele = mane

66 HAND

hand

hand, fist

--

s^u

kis-ib

el

el = hand; parmak = finger

yum-ruk = fist

67 HE

he/she

he/she

male

--

a.ne

in

ni-tah ?

O

an, onu = 3rd p. pr. accusative form

an, o = he, she, it

ata = father, male

68 HEAD

head, wise

head, wise

--

skull, top of head

--

sag~

sag~

--

ugu

bas^, tepe, kafa, kelle

Ak sak-al = elder man, wise man, saga

sag~lam ds^nen = wise

sag~r (ses duymayan [IZEy, 572]) = deaf

bas^tasi = skull; tepe = top of head

69 TO HEAR

hear, understanding

noise, sound

noise, sound

listen, harken, heed

secret

--

g~is^..tuku [es]

gu

gurgur

aka

hal

is^itmek, dinlemek

es^it = hear, understand

gr-l-t = noise

gr-le-me = noise [IZEy, 304]

--

--

70 HEART

heart

heart

--

suck

--

s^a3.g

s^a3.g

--

sub b>r

yrek, gnl (kngl), kalb/kalp [IZEy, 367]

yrek/rek;

sag~-lam (diri, gcl, gvenli [IZEy, 571]) = alive,

sound in body, strong, trustworthy [RDH1]

sor-mak = to suck

71 HEAVY

massive, heavy

heavy, thick, strong

--

dugud

kul

ag~r

ag~r

kal-in = heavy, thick, strong

72 HERE

here

--

ki..ne-a

burada, buraya

bura, burada, buraya

73 TO HIT

to hit, beat

to hit, beat

--

--

to strike, stamp

--

tud2, tu 10/11.b

tud2, tu 10/11.b

--

--

ru

vurmak, dvmek

dv-mek (tg-s^, dy-mek) = to hit, to beat

teg~-mek (deymek) to touch;

tok-mak, tok-a = mallet, stick for beating out washing

tok-us^-mak = to hit each other, head to head butting.

ur-mak, vur-mak = to strike; darp etmek= to stamp out

74 TO HOLD, TAKE

to hold, take

to hold, take

to hold, take

to hold, take

--

--

ha.za

dab5, b>y

tuku

tuku

--

tutmak, yakalamak, almak

yaka-lamak = to catch

dey-mek = to touch

tok-un-mak (dok-un-mak) = to touch

toka = hand shake

tut-mak = to hold

X8 HORN

horn

--

si

boynuz, mgz [HNO, 819]

mng-z, ming-iz, my-z [AVG, 287]

75 HOW

how

--

--

--

a.na-gin7

--

--

nasl, ne s^ekilde

na-sil, ne-gl [AVG, 287] = how;

ne-ce = how;

na, ne = what

X9 HUNDRED

hundred

ten

--

g~is^ 2 g>y

u

yz

yz =100

on =10

76 TO HUNT

to hold, to seize

--

kick, flop,

knock down

wander, pass along

--

hardship, difficulty,

wild

to fish, hunt

catch, strike

--

dab 2,4,5

--

db b>p

db b>v

--

dib 2

bad4

bad4

ta-g

ta-g

avlamak

tap-mak = to find;

av-lamak = to hunt (d seems to be dropped); ab (av) = game to hunt

tep-mek = to kick

dv-mek = to beat;

dib-ek = stone or wooden mortar

--

bat-mak = to go under, to sink

yab-an = wild

ag~ = net to catch fish (t seems to be dropped)

teg-mek/deg~-mek = to touch

77 HUSBAND

husband

mate, spouse

first husband

a team

--

ni-ta

dam

g~itlam nit

bir

er, koca, es^

er, koca = husband; ata = father

dam (ev) = house

--

--

78 I

I

I

I, self

myself

possesive pr. suffix

--

g~a-e, ma-e

-g~u 10

ni

men

-mu, -ma

men, ben

men

-em = verbal (indefinite) pronoun suffix for I

meni = (accusative 1st p. s.)

men = myself

-im, -m, -um, -m = possessive 1st p. s. suffix

79 ICE

ice

--

s^eg~8 [?]

buz, muz, don

sog~-uk = cold

80 IF

if ?

if it be/Gordon

--

tukum-bi

h-a

eg~er, ger, ise, -se, -sa

-se, -sa = conditional suffix

--

81 IN

locative,

genetive suffix

in, into

into, to, upon

middle, inner, waist

--

-a, -bi

-a, -bi

im(mi)

ba-an

ib, b

ieri

-a, -ya = dative suffix

-in, -n

ieri

bin = get onto, ride

bel = waist, guts

82 TO KILL

kill

kill, lie down

kill, vanquish, crush

terrible, wild

to kill, die

to destroy

--

us^2

nud, nu n>y

gaz 2

hus^

ug 5,7,8 g>l

gul

ldrmek

sus-tur-mak = to silence

u-yut = put into sleep; yat = lie down

ez = crush

--

l = die

l-dr-mek = to kill, to destroy (g is dropped?)

10 KNEE

knee

--

dug3, du10

diz

diz = knee; ek = joint

83 TO KNOW

understanding

understanding

to know

--

tl

tl

zu

bilmek

til (dil) bil-mek = to understand a language

til (dil) = language, tongue

us = mind, intelligence, wisdom

84 LAKE

lake, sea

spring

pool, swamp

pool, pond

--

a.a.ba

idim

umun 5,6,11

~garin

gl, kl, (tengiz, deniz = sea)

ba-t-ak = swamp

bulak, gze, kaynak

--

--

85 TO LAUGH

to laugh

--

i.si.is^ [?]

glmek

ses = voice, sound

86 LEAF

bud

bud (3)

leaf, sprout (3)

sprout, shoot

luxuriant growth

--

pa

pa

pa

bil b>f

lam l>c

yaprak

uc, gon-ca, tomurcuk, srgn = bud;

te-pe = hill, the end point such as the top of the head.

yap-rak = leaf; fi-liz = sprout

fi-liz = sprout

im-en, ot = grass; um = turf

87 LEFT

left

--

gub3

sol

sol

88 LEG

thigh

--

--

waist, lower body

--

ur2, r>d

--

--

ib2

bacak, bud

bud = thigh;

yum-ur (yuvarlak, yumulmus^ cikinti, yumruk gibi) = round;

bal-dr = calf, back of the shank, leg (knee down)

bel = waist; bel-den as^ag~ = lower body

89 TO LIE (down)

lie down, lie with

vagina

lie down

--

nud, na 2

ngla

ku

yatmak

yat, uyu, uzan

am

ku-cak-la = hug, embrace

90 TO LIVE

to live, dwell

--

--

sit, dwell, buttock

seated, a fart

life force

live, create, yellow

--

ti, til

ti, til

--

tus^ [durun]

durun

alad

sig 7, se 12

yas^amak, sag~ olmak

til-ek/dlek (dlleyici [IZEy, 186]) = prolific, fertile,

productive, fruitful;

til/dil = tongue.

otur = sit; yas^a= live, dwell

oturan = seated

--

sig- (sik-) = to intercourse; sa-ri= yellow

91 LIVER

liver, omen

liver, soul

soul, innerd

--

ba 3

ur 5

bar

karaciger, bag~ir

bag~-r = liver, lungs, bosom, heart, breast

yr-ek/r-ek = heart

ruh, can = soul

92 LONG

long

pull, draw, distance

length, distance

--

sud.r

gid2

su

uzun

uzun = long

ek = pull; uzat = draw; git = go

uz-un-luk = length; uz, iz = yol

93 LOUSE

lice, insect

vermin

--

uh

uh

bit

bit, bcek (bg~cek, rmcek [IZEy, 100])

--

94 MAN, MALE

man

penis, man

penis, man

prince, young man

man, soldier, servant

--

nita, ni-tah

ngis 2,3 (g<>s)

us^

mis^, mes^

er-im

adam, ata

ata = father; te-kin, ti-gin= prince

sik, k = penis

uri (erkek evlat) = son [ HNO, 876]

te-kin, ti-gin

er-im = my husband, my man, my soldier, my male servant

95 MANY

many

many, much

abundance

many, much, people

--

s^ar2

es^

he 2

lu

ok, kp, bol, dolu, artk

ar-tk = many

ok = many

bol, dolu = abundant;

bol, dolu = abundant; top-lu-m = many people

96 MEAT, FLESH

meat, flesh

--

uzu

et

ku-zu = lamb (4)

X11 MOON

moon

shine brightly

--

id 4,8, it 4 d/t>y

hda, had 2 d>y

ai, ay

ay (ad, id, ud) = moon (5)

ayas = light (Ak Ayas = Ajax, Sais, Zeus)[MiEl,9; PK]

97 MOTHER

mother

mother

mother

mother

--

ama m>n

ama

ama

ama

ana

ana = mother; eme=female

ana ana (nine, nene) = grandmother

emig, imig (meme[AVG, 264]) = breast

mama (kadin [AVG, 286]) = woman; mama = uncle's wife

98 MOUNTAIN

mountain

--

higland

higland

--

roof, mountain pass

--

mountain

--

--

--

heap, pile

--

big

--

kur, hur.sag~

--

kur, hur.sag~ s>t

kur, hur.sag~

--

ur

--

is^i

--

--

--

gurum

--

kur4

tau, tag~, dag~

kr (yayla, cayrlk, yaylm [IZEy, 407])= countryside,

uncultivated land [RDH1];

tag~ (dag~) = mountain;

kur-gan = mound, hill

boz-kr = (grey) steppe

bur-un = nose; te-pe = mountain peak; sirt = mountain top;

ge-it, bo-g~az = mountain pass;

sira dag~lar = mountain chain;

kt-ki (yksek yer, yayla, dag~lk yer, tepe, tepecik,

toprak ygn [IZEy, 293,294]) = highland,

plateau, mountainous place, hill, small hill, pile of dirt

gur-gan (kur-gan) = mound, pile;

yg~n, kme = pile

kara = big [FH]

99 MOUTH

mouth

door, entrance

swallow, eat

--

ka

gi

gu 7, ku g>y

ag~z

ag~z = mouth; ka-pu = gate, door

ga-pu (ka-p) = gate; gir= enter

yut = swallow; gut= gulping

100 NAME

name

speak, word, year

progeny

--

mu

mu

numun

ad, isim

tam-ga (dam-ga) = seal, stamp

m-rl-dan-mak = murmuring to oneself

soy, nesil, torun-lar, tohum

ENGLISH SUMERIAN TURKISH
101 NARROW

narrow

--

--

sig 9

--

dar, sk, sk

sk = close together, dense, thick

sk = tight, narrow

102 NEAR

near

one (as one)

come near to

side, near, with

locative suffix (at)

--

zg, zi

as

s

da d>y

-ta

yakn

sk = close together, dense, thick

--

st s-te = one on the top of other

ya-kn = near

-ta -te, -ta (-de, -da) = locative suffix

103 NECK

neck

hinged joint

--

gu2

kak

boyun, bogaz, kstak

boyun

ek = joint

104 NEW

new

--

gibil

yeni, teze (taze)

yeni

105 NIGHT

night

--

--

g~i 6, gig

--

gece, gice, tn

kk/kg/gg ( gece [IZEy, 286]) = night;

gk (kk yz, mavi, gk rengi) = sky, sky blue

106 NOSE

nose, muzzle

peak, point

peak, point

peak, point

roof, mountain pass

--

kiri 4 k>b

kur k>b

kur

kur

ur

burun, gaga, uc

burun = nose, point

bur-un = nose, point

Kur-ul-tay = summit meeting;

Kur-i-kan (adr) = tent

burun = nose, point; dam, ati = roof; geit = mountain pass

107 NOT

no, not, without

prohibiting performative

fault, error

to erase

prohibitive prefix

--

nu- n>m

nam- n>m

l

s^es^

ba-ra

yok, eksik, olumsuz

-me, -ma = verbal negation suffix

-me, -ma = verbal negation suffix

kusur, hata = fault; yan-lis^= error

-siz, -suz = negation suffix; sil= erase

engel

108 OLD

used, worn, old, ancient

elder man

old woman

old woman

old woman

ancient, old, ruins

old

old

old

progenitor

progenitor

progenitor

--

li-bir

abba b>p

umu

umu m>n

umu m>n

sumun~, sun

ur-ag/L254

ur-ag/L254

ur-ag/L254

ugu 4

ugu 4 g>y

ugu 4

eski, prtk, yas^l

pr-tk = torn, ragged

apa, baba = father, old man;

eme = woman;

ana = mother,

nene, nine = grandmother

eski

yor-gun = tired, old;

urug (uruk) = clan.

er-gin = aged, matured, old.

Bay lgen, Tengri = Turkic god names [MiEl]

Ak Ayas, Tengri = Turkic god names [MiEl, 9]

ogan/okan (ulu Tengri); aga = creator god, Lord, owner

109 ONE

one

one, title of AN

alone

one, 60 (1/60th?)

first, slave

progenitor

--

as^

dis^ 2

dili

~ges^

sa~g

ugu

bir, tek

bir = 1; is (idi=sahip, tanri adi [IBML,33] = title of God

is (idi=sahip, tanri adi [IBML,33] = title of God

dul = widow, alone; dil = tongue

--

--

Ak Ayas, Tengri = Turkic god names [MiEl, 9]

110 OTHER

equal, partner

female, woman

half

drawing

--

man

mu-nus

ms

masda

dig~er, bas^ka, oteki

es^, ortak

eme, hanum = female, woman

yarm

--

111 PERSON, PEOPLE

people

people

human beings

--

lu2

ug~

na-

kis^i, s^ahis, halk, toplum, el/il

el/il, budun

bugun (bukun [AVG, 270])

--

112 TO PLAY

an insturment, sing,

play an insturment

--

cry, shout, scream

cry, shout, scream

cantor (singer)

--

du 12

du 12

du 12

tal 3,4,5 t>

tal 3,4,5

gala

almak, oynamak

da-vul = drum;

da-vul almak = to play drum; saz almak;

tu-nur [kam davulu HNO, 485] = shaman's drum

al-mak = to play an instrument

s^a-ma-ta

al-mak, sy-le-mek

113 TO PULL

pull

pull

pull

--

gid2

gid2

gid2

ekmek

it-mek = to push;

nde git-mek = to go in the front

gt-mek (sr-mek) = to drive

114 TO PUSH

to push

to push

to push

to push

push

butt, toss

fling, shove

--

zag

tag

tag

tag

s^u..us2

du 7

lah4

itmek, sokmak

sok-mak = to thrust into, to insert, to push

teg~-mek (dey-mek) = to touch [IZEy, 174]

teg~-en-mek (day-an-mak [IZEy, 175]) = to lean against

teg~-nek (day-a-nak [IZEy, 175]) = cane, stick

sus-ta-li = switchblade

tok-us^-mak (dok-us-mak), tos-la-mak

atmak = fling; itmek = shove

115 RAIN

to rain

moistening, spittle

moistening, spittle

rain, drip

rain, drip

cloud, storm, rain

--

s^eg~3 s>y

us

us

an.s^ur

an.s^ur

em

yag~mur

yag~-mak; (nur yag~d = it rained)

s-lak = wet, moist; sis =fog;

su= water; ise-le-mek = drizzle

yag~mur = rain; yam-gur [ AVG, 308] = rain;

k-s^r (dolu) = hailstone

--

116 RED

red - brown, ocher

red

red

light, bright

light, bright

to flame up, blaze

--

sa5

si 4, su 4

si 4, su 4

piri~g

piri~g

bir

al, kzl, krmz

sa-r = yellow

kr-m-z, k-zl = red;

k-zl (altun) = gold

prl-t = light; par-lak = bright

yar-uk [AVG, 309] = light

par-la-mak

117 RIGHT, CORRECT

right (hand), true

--

legitimate

true, honest, reliable

--

zi-d z>s

zi-d z>d

zi-d z>d

na-nam

hak, dog~ru, gerek, dz, drst, erdem

sag~ = right side

dz = straight

dzen (yasa, kural [IZEy, 491] = law, code

namus-lu

118 RIGHT (side)

right side

--

zid, zag

sag~

sag~

119 RIVER

river

river, cannal

watercourse

irrigation ditch, dike

canal, ditch

--

id 2

ida, id

a

eg, ig, e

pa 4,5,6

nehir, su, ay, irmak, dere

ir-mak = small river

ulugsu [IBML, 80] = river

arku (nehir, dere [AVG, 261]

ark (ark, hark, yark, su yolu [IZEy, 38]) = irrigation ditch

ba-t-ak= swamp; ark (arik)

120 ROAD

caravan expedition,

road

road

road, expedition, trip

road, expedition, trip

--

kas-kal, ka.g~iri3 k>y

kas-kal, ka.g~iri3 k>y

sal s>y

~gir

~gir

yol, iz

iz = path ; uzun yol = long road; girmek = to go in

giri-lenka-pi, yr-nen

yol

gir = enter; yr= walk;

git = go

121 ROOT

root

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

breed ram, bull

breed bull, fish roe

breed bull, fish roe

send forth, rise

--

ur 2

--

--

--

--

ur 2

--

--

--

ur 2

utua

inda, ninda

inda, ninda

de

kk, urug

ur (s^is^, yumru) = tumor, round, extension from body

like a tumor.

ura (s^is^, kozalak [KTLS, 504]) = cypress cone (seed)

[RDH1, 677],

a swelling, tumor [RDH1, 1065].

ur/r (reme, dl [IZEy, 689]) = reproduction

r-en = generation, progeny [RDH1, 1209]

kk = root [IZEy, 286]

ur, urug( tohum [IBML, 80]) = seed

urug (uruk, soy, kk) = clan, tribal root, kins

ata = father; ko = ram; bug~a = bull

da-miz-lik, dl

iek

dl = seed

122 ROPE

rope

to tie

knot

rope

--

dur

kes

kesda

s^e

ip, urgan

ur-gan (rken) = rope

bag~-la-mak

d-g~m = knot

sicim

123 ROTTEN

rot

rot, stink

ruin, rot, decay

--

sug~in

hab 2 h>k

sun, sumun

rk, kokmus^, kpklenmis^

sog~-an = onion, smelly

kp-k = foam

--

X12 ROUND

round

round

turn around, transform

sphere, circle, ring, loop

ring, hand mill

encircle, beseige

--

--

la-gab

ni-gin 2 -ni

ku

gur

har

kra, kr k>s

--

yuvarlak, yumru, ur, s^is^

kab kacak = round pots and pans, containers

--

kag~-ni = wooden wheeled cart

te-ker-lek = wheel; ur= round, tumor

har-man = harvest, turn round and round

sar (kus^at) = encircle, siege;

e-per = wall encircling a property, hedge

124 TO RUB

to rub

to rub

anoint with oil

--

su.ub

su.ub

s^es^ 2

srmek, yaymak

sr-mek = to rub

spr- mek = to sweep, to clean

yag~-la-mak, sil-mek?

125 SALT

salt

--

mun

tuz

tuz

126 SAND

sand, dry

dust

--

sahar

ukum

kum

sahra = desert

kum = sand

127 TO SAY

say

--

dug4 [=3D> e]

demek, sylemek, aymak [MuEr, 104]

de, di ([UYAT, 102] = say

128 TO SCRATCH

to scratch

--

hur

kas^imak, kazmak, izmek

kas^i-mak = scratch

129 SEA

sea

the sentient sea

the abyssal sea

the abyssal sea

--

a.ab.a

ab-zu (or ZU-AB)

en-gur

en-gur

deniz, tengiz

deniz, tengiz

su = water (15)

ten-giz (deniz) = sea;

en-gin= high sea, open sea, wide, wast, boundless

130 TO SEE

eye, see, face

stare at, gaze

stare at, gaze

to seek, to find

expose, see

see through

appearance

appearance

attention geting

awe inspiring

--

igi

ug 6

du 8

pd 3 d>l

bar b>g

sim

l

l

ulut

lm

grmek

gz = eye; gr= see; yz = face.

bak = look

dik-mek (gzn) = to stare

bul-mak = to find, to discover, uncover

gr

cam = glass

grnt; al= red;

al-l (renkli, gsteris^li)) = red

bulut = cloud; al-l (renkli, gsteris^li)) = red

al-l (renkli, gsteris^li)) = red

131 SEED

seed

--

seed, progeny

to grow

--

numun, a

numun, a

nu~gun, numun

mu m>b

tohum, dl, meni, urug [IZEy, 238]

tohum, dl, yumurta, ur, ur-luk,

urug (her seyin tohumu [IBMl, 39])

meni = human seed

b-y-me

X13 SEVEN

seven, totality

--

--

imin [u3-me-nu]

imin [u3-me-nu]

yedi, yeti

yedi = seven; tm= totality; tamam = that is all;

hemi, ham = everyone

132 TO SEW

weaver, ?tailor

net, mat, sinew

rope

type of weaver

to weave, decorate

to weave a mat

to weave a mat

--

--

us-bar r>s

sa

es^e

hb

tag

kid 6, kad 6,8 (k<>d)

kid 6, kad 6,8

kid 6, kad 6,8

dikmek

s(t)-bas^ = clothing

hasir = mat

s^e-rit, kiris^ = sinew, thread; ip, urgan = rope

aba = thick cloak

tak- = jewelry; tak= to wear; rmek = to weave

dik-mek = to sew, to tie together

kat katr-mek = to tie together layer by layer;

kat = layer, such as layers of a rope

133 SHARP

to cut

point, head

lance

barb, point

barb, point

insert, enter, write

--

--

dagger, sword

--

--

--

gum, gun

se~g

sukur

dih 2

dih 2

sur

sur

sur

~gir

~gir

~gir

sivri, keskin, itik [UYAT, 214], tkr [UYAT, 276]

kes-mek = to cut

igne = needle, sharp point

sok-ar (mizrak, kar-gi) = lance, to thrust into

di-k-en = barb, thorn;

i-tik (keskin [UYAT, 214]) = sharp

sr = drive, stabb; ir=write (Chuvash sir, ir [TDEK1, 225])

kar-g = lance, pike, javelin

sr-g (sn-g) = bayonet

gir = enter;

gir-gi = a pointed instrument that enters;

t-kr (keskin [UYAT, 276])

X14 TO SHOOT

shoot an arrow

arrow

--

ti..ra

ti

atmak, vurmak

tg~atmak, ok atmak arrow

tg~, ok = knitting needle, straight and strong

134 SHORT

short (man)

short

short

small

ant (a small bug?)

--

(lu)-gud

gud 8

lal

gi 17

kis^i

ksa, gdek, gdk

gd-ek, gd-k

gd-ek = short

--

ki-sa = short;ki-ik (kk) = small

kon-guz (bcek [HNO, 843]) = a bug

135 TO SING

to sing

--

--

sing(er)

--

du12

--

--

na-(r)

rlamak, trk sylemek, demek

tr-k de-mek, r-la-mak = to sing

kg/kg [TDEK, 227] = to sing with the

accompaniment of instruments

s^ar-k-c, tr-k-c

X15 SISTER

girl (young)

--

--

--

sister

female, woman

--

--

ge

ge

ge

ge

nin9

nunuz

nunuz

kz kardes^, baci, apa [KTLS, 43], eke (ece, eze [IBML, 12])

gen kz;

eke (ece, eze [IBML, 12]) = sister;

aga (byk erkek kardes^, bey, yrenin byg~) = elder brother,

Beg, lord, rich and influential man of the town.

ana = mother; nine= grandmother, sin-gil [IBML, 60]

ine [KTLS, 176] = female; ana= mother;

eme = woman;nine/nene = grandmother

136 TO SIT

to sit

to mount, ride, sit on

lap, thigh

silent, still

to sit down, reside

--

throne, dais, stand

--

governor

pillow (?), triangle

--

tus^ [=3D> durun]

u 5

ur

ll

s^us^

--

bar-ag

bar-ag

ni- sang

sang-tag

oturmak

o-tur-mak = to sit; dur = stop

u (yu)= sleep; bin = mount, ride; o-tur = sit

ku-cak = lap; bud (but) = thigh

dur-an = still, silent

s^ (dur) = a Turkish expression used to call

a moving (i.e., a driven) donkey to stop

otur-ak = place to sit on, chair;

dur-ak (durulan yer) = stand

--

day-a-nak (yas-tik, [IZEy, 171]) = pillow

137 SKIN

skin, hide, leather

meat, flesh

peel, pare, expose

spread out?

pelt, hide

--

kus^

uzu

bar

pra

mun-sub

deri, gn

ks-e-le

kuzu = lamb

arala, soy = peel

yay-mak, ser-mek

deri = pelt; gn = hide

138 SKY

sky, heaven, high

--

--

--

dark, night (?sky)

sky

--

an, an-

an, an-

an, an-

an, an-

gi 6, m

gik, kik

gk, tan (tang) [IZEy, 638]

tan (tang, gk) = sky; (16)

tan agarmasi [IZEy, 639] = dawn;

Tan-r, Teng-ri, Ten-gir, Tan-gara = sky god;

ana = mother (9).

gi-ce (gece, tn) = night; gk = sky, sky blue

gk [IZEy, 286]

139 TO SLEEP

sleep

lie down

sleep

rest, repose

--

3

ku

ku-ku

hu

u [HNO, 873], uyumak

u, uyu = sleep

yat = lie down

uy-ku = sleep

--

140 SMALL

child, young, small

child, young, small

child, son

young, small

small, young man

girl, young woman

short

short

low, small

small, young

small, young

--

tur t>k

banda2/3

pes^ 8

di 4.di 4.l

gi 14

ge 2,3 g>k

gud 8

gud 8

sig

har

har

kk, ufak, hurda

kr-pe = young, child, small; hur-da = small

hur-da (hirda) = young, small

pi = bastard child

din = young, energetic

ge-de/gi-de = young boy (Azeri)

kz = girl

gd-ek (gd-ek) = short;

gd-en = large intestine; gd (gt) = rectum

sk = tight

hur-da (hr-da) = small;

dar = narrow, tight

141 TO SMELL

smell?

smell, scent, fragerence

smell, scent, fragerence

stench

--

--

--

sweet, pleasant

foul smell

deficate, urinate

aromatic, perfume

--

ni

ir

ir

zi

--

zi

zi

sag 5, sig 6

hab 2

bid d>s

s^em

kokmak, koklamak

koku

iy, is, iyis, cit (koku [KTLS, 492])

ir-in = pus, matter of wounds [RDH1,546]

sid-ik (siy-ik, hiydikin Baskurt [KTLS, 778],

kt koku) = urine;

si-mek (siy-mek [IBML, 60]) = urinate

sik = penis

--

pis koku

pis koku

gzel koku

142 SMOKE

smoke

smoke/deliberate

soot

eclipsed, darkened

--

de3, i.bi2

dar

ubilla 2

gidim 6

duman, ttn, bulut, sis

du-man, t-tn

du-man, t-tn; d>k kar = snow

bulut = cloud; is, kurum = soot

gice (gece) = night

143 SMOOTH

smooth

to smooth

--

sal [?] s>k

sal [?]

dz, dzgn, kaygan, kolay

kal/kel = bald headed, bare of vegetation.

d-zelt-mek

144 SNAKE

snake, reptile

encircling snake

--

mus^

mer

yilan

kus^ = bird; mus^ = bird like

mar (6) = snake, serpent

145 SNOW

snow

--

s^eg~8 [?]

kar

sog (sog~uk [KTLS, 787]) = cold

146 SOME

some

--

[?]

baz , bir kac

--

X16 SPEAR

spear

--

s^ukur

mzrak, karg, zpkn

kar-g

147 TO SPIT

to spit

--

uh 2 [?]

tkrmek

tuh (tkrmek)

148 TO SPLIT

split

split, shatter

cut into, divide

sickle

cut out, deduct,

apportion

lead out, travel

slave (?)

--

bar, b>y

dar, d>y

sil 2

zubu

s^ub

s^ub

sab

su-bar

yarmak

yar

yar

bl; dilim = slice; yar-m = half

orak

blme, paylas^tirma

blme, paylas^tirma

sab (sz, haber [MuEr, 127]) = words, news

kul; sin-gar [MuEr, 128] = half, one of two halves

149 TO SQUEEZE

to twist /Gordon

--

--

--

sur

sur

--

skmak, sarmak, sarlmak, kucaklamak

sar-mak = to wrap around, to wind

sar-l-mak, = to be hugged, to be embraced,

to be encircled by enemy

150 TO STAB, PIERCE

to stab, pierce

dig, scrape,

furrow hole

arrow

arrow

gore, toss

insert, enter

sting, fever

--

bur3 b>v

tu 10

tu 10

ti

ti

du 7

sar

tab b>v

tg~la-mak, okla-, bakla-, del-, gir-, sok-, ignele-

vur-mak = to hit; gir-mek = to enter, to pierce

tr-nak-la-mak = to scrape, to claw;

des^-mek = to lance, to open up

tg~ (ok) = arrow, sharp pointed spindle

tg~, s^is^= knitting needle

des^ = to gore, to stabb

gir = enter, pierce; sr = drive into, push

tav-la-mak = to heat; a-tas^ = fire

ENGLISH SUMERIAN TURKISH
151 TO STAND

stationary, standing

to be, to have

to be, we

fate

to act, to behave

stand up

--

gub [su8.b]

me

me

me

me 6

zig 3 z>d

durmak, ayakta kalmak

duran

men = I, me; olmak; sahip olmak

olmak; miz/biz;

men me-nem = I am my fate (11)

dav-ran-mak

dik-dur, kalk

152 STAR

shine, glow

shine, glow

star, planet

planetshine, star

shine brightly

shine brightly

shine, gleam, sta

shine, gleam, sta

--

mul m>y

mul m>y

mul m>y

s^un s>g

had 2

had 2 d>y

zalag z>y

zalag z>y

yildiz, yulduz, gn, gnes^

yal/yul (is^ik, kizarti [IZEy, 719]) = bright, shining, light;

yal-in-lik [AVG, 308]

yul-duz (yil-diz) = star

gn (kn) = sun

od (ates^) = fire;

ay = moon (5)

yal-av (alev, [AVG, 308]) = flame;

yal-tir-mak [AVG, 308] = to shine

153 STICK

stick

--

--

g~is^

g~idru

ubuk, sopa, srk, deg~nek, ag~a

ag~a = tree, wood

ubuk, srk, deg~nek

154 STONE

pebble, stone

stone, rock

pretty, precious

stone

block of stone

lapis lazuli

--

na 4

za 2

s^ub 7

--

la-gab

gn

tas^, kaya, akl

akl

ka-ya = big rock; a-kl = pebble

s^eb = coral stone?, mercan?; guher

--

lapik (lepik= yassi ince tas^) = layered stone

gk tas^ (mavi renkli tas^)

155 STRAIGHT

to straighten,

upright

steadyness,

reliability

stand upright

--

si..sa2

--

~gen

--

si

dz

dzeltmek; dik = upright

--

gven

--

dik dur

156 TO SUCK

to suckle

breathe (in), soul

stench

leak

leak

overflow

--

sub b>r

zi (g)

z

zum z>d

zum

zum

sormak, sorumak, emmek, i*mek, *ekmek, almak

sor = suckle, suck

nefes almak = to breathe; can = soul

sid-ik = urine; kt koku

dam-la-mak = to drip;

sz-mak

tas^-mak

157 SUN

sun, time, when

--

--

--

day, time

--

sun god

torpidity, fever

beam, ray

--

--

utu, ud

--

--

--

utu, ud d>y

--

d.KIN

dih 2

dalla d>y

--

gn, kn

t/ot/od (atas^ [IZEy, 515, 703]) = fire;

t-mek (yakmak [IZEy, 703]) = to burn;

t = (hot) iron ( used for pressing clothes);

gn, kn = sun;

d-le/y-le = noon time;

d = time [ODes, 466], [HNO, 825], [ONT: 12];

kn tengri [ONT, 12]

--

yalav (alev)= flame, fire;

yul-duz = star

158 TO SWELL

to grow

to widen

to widen

to widen

to grow, thick

--

mu 2 m>b

dag~al

dag~al d>

dag~al d>y

bulug~ 3

s^is^mek, kabarmak, bymek

b-y-mek = to grow

dag~-l-mak = to spread, to widen

og~-al-mak = to increase, to spread

yay-l-mak = to spread

bulug~ = to reach puberty; to ripen.

159 TO SWIM

water

waterfowl, swan

--

--

i 7

us

--

yzmek

su

kaz = goose; ku/kur/kug~u = swan;

su = water

160 TAIL

tail

--

--

--

kun n>d>y

--

--

kuyruk

kud-ruk (kuy-ruk [IZEy, 454]);

kud/kuy (1. kic, 2. kiyi, 3. dere [IZEy,454]) = 1. bottom, rear end;

2. side; 3. brook

X17 TEN

ten

hand (finger?)

finger(s), 10

one (?)

--

u [ha-wa-mu]

su

h, u

dis

on

on = ten

el, (parmak)

on parmak (barimak [IZEy, 549] = 10 fingers

bir

161 THAT

to that?

that one, he, she

that one

this/that one

--

ri

ni, na

ni, na

bi, b

0, ol, s^u

-ra, -ri, -ru = directional suffix

an (o) = he, she, it

o biri

bu/mu = this one; s^u = that one

162 THERE

that place

--

place, town

place, town

place, town

place, town

place, town

place, town

--

ki..ri-a

--

ki

--

ki k>y

ki

ki

ki

ora, orada, oraya

o-ra, o-ra-s;

-ri, -ra, -ru = directional suffix

kr (yayla, ova, ayirlik, yaylim [IZEy, 407]) = countryside,

mountain resort, medow;

yer/yir/kir = place, ground, dirt

kir (yer, toz, toprak, amur) = dirt (12)

kent = town

ki (geri, bati) = west [HNO, 812]

163 THEY

they

genitive, locative

this one

--

--

e.ne.ne

-na-

ne

ne

onlar, an-an (old Turkic)

an-an (= onlar) (7); (-en, -an= -ler, -lar in old Turkish)

-in, -un = suffix for genitive

bu-na = to this one

-na = dative suffix

164 THICK

expand, womb

big, fat

big, fat

big, fat

--

pes^ p>s^

gur 4, gir 8

gur 4, gir 8

gur 4, gir 8

kaln, sk, ok, koyu, yog~un

s^is^-mek = to expand

gr = thick, dense

yo-g~un = thick, dense

guy-ruk/kuy-ruk = big fat tail of eastern Anatolian sheep

165 THIN

thin

--

--

--

--

--

sal

sal

sal s>c

sal s>y

sal s>d

ince, seyrek, sulu, soluk, cansiz, ciliz, zayif

su-lu = watery

sol-uk = pale (in colour)

cil-iz, can-siz = thin, undersized

yal = watery mash prepared for dogs as food

dal = branch of a tree (which is thin as compared to the body of a tree

166 TO THINK

hear, understand

intelligent

--

discernment

intelligent

--

g~es^tug 2,3

us 4

--

umus, us 4

ngiz-al

ds^nmek

es^it = hear, anla

us (anlayis^ gc, yeti, z, tz, akl

[IZEy, 689]) = inteligence, mind, wisdom

us (zeki, anlayan [IZEy, 689]) = discerning

us-lu = intelligent, smart

167 THIS

this

--

ne.en, ne- n>l

bu/mu, buna/muna, bunda/munda, ol

bu/mu, buna/muna, bunda/munda, ol

168 THOU

thou

--

za-e, -zu

sen

sen; -iz, -uz = 2nd p. plural verbal suffix

169 THREE

three

--

es^ 5

170 TO THROW

to throw

--

ra, ri, s^ub

atmak

-ri, -ru = directional suffix

171 TO TIE

to bind, tie

to bind, tie

to bind, tie

tie, rope, bond

to tie, bond, string

--

to tie, bond, string

--

to tie, bond, string

to tie, bond, string

to tie, bond, string

to tie

--

to tie

--

to tie together

to tie together

nest

nest

to weave a mat

sinew, cord, mat, net

a knot

--

l

l

l

dim

dur

--

dur

--

dur

dur

dur

kes^.dr

--

kes^.dr

--

kad 4,5

kad 4,5

gud d>y

gud

kid 6, kad 6,8

sa

kes^da

bag~lamak, dokumak, dgmlemek, kat katmak

il-mek (baglamak, birles^tirmek [IZEy, 343]);

il-mek (dg~m) = noose;

ile = with, together with [RDH1, 527]

dg~m [IZEy, 208]

dr-mek (bkmek, toplamak, katlamak [IZEy, 210]) = to put together,

to tie, to wrap.

dr-m = flat bread wrapped around cheese or other edibles to eat,

folded sandwich.

dr-ge (katlanmis pamuk[IZEy, 210]) = folded cotton

dr-g [IZEy, 210] = wrapped dead body, folded, wrapped object

dok-u-mak (dgmlemek) = to weave, to tie

kos^-mak (baglamak, ilis^tirmek, takmak [RDH2, 461]) = to hitch,

to attach something to another

kos^a (yoldas^, [IZEy, 429]) = two together, two people attached together like

man and wife, pair, two, two friends, two related people or objects.

kat (bkm, kvrm [IZEy, 384]) = layer, such as layers of a rope (13);

kat kat-mak = to add a floor or a layer.

uya (yuva) = nest [HNO, 877]

udi (uyu) = to sleep [HNO, 874];

kat kat-mak = to add a floor or a layer to a layered object.

--

kos^-uk = tied together

172 TONGUE

tongue

--

--

eme

eme

dil

em = suck

dil/til

173 TOOTH

tooth

--

zu2, zu 9

dis^/tis^

ez-mek = to crush, to chew;

174 TREE

tree

--

g~is^

ag~a

ag~a; yis^ (orman) = forest

175 TO TURN

to turn

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

gi 4, gur g>b

gi 4, gur g>b

gi 4, gur

gi 4, gur

gi 4, gur

gi 4, gur g>s

gi 4, gur

dnmek, burmak, bkmek

bur-mak = to twist, to turn

bur-gu = drill; te-ker-lek = wheel

ger-i-ye git = turn back

eg~-ri = bent, crooked

ger-i, arka = back

sar = wrap around

kur = reload (e.g.: "yay kurmak" or "saat kur")

X18 TWENTY

twenty

--

nis^

yirmi, yigirmi

yirmi, yigirmi = 20

176 TWO

two

--

min

iki/ikki

iki/ikki = 2

177 TO VOMIT

to vomit

--

buru 8 [?]

karmak, kusmak

karmak, kusmak

178 TO WALK

walk

--

g~en (du, etc)

yrmek, gelmek, gitmek

gel git = come and go, to walk about; yuru = walk

179 WARM

warm

scorching

baker, cook

--

kum 2

ml

mu-hal-dim

isi, scak

kum = sand, desert

--

--

180 TO WASH

wash

wash, bathe, pour

rain, cloud

to clean

--

luh, lah l>y

tu 5,17

em

sikil

yikamak, yumak

yka, yu

su dk = pour water to wash

yag~-mur; bulut

sk-mak = to squeeze water out of laundry

181 WATER

water

--

a (?)

su, ter [IZEy, 655]

su

182 WE

we

--

-me

biz, miz

miz; -miz, -muz = 1st p. pl. verbal suffix

183 WET

wet

--

--

--

moist, get moist

soak, cloud

pond, pool

--

dur(u) 5

dur(u) 5

dur(u) 5

sur r>l

dig

lum

ar-im

yas^, sulu

duru (sv, sulu [KTLS, 776]) = watery

duru-la-mak = rinsing with clean water;

ter (islak, yas^ [IZEy, 655]) = wet; sweat

sulu, sv (cvk, suyuk [KTLS, 776]) = watery;

su dk = pour water;

bu-lut = cloud;

nor (in Mongolian) = lake

184 WHAT

what

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

a.na

a.na

a.na

a.na

a.na

a.na

a.na

a.na

a.na

ne, na, nasil

ne, na (hangi, AVG, 72])

ne-uk = how? [HNO, 820]

ne-guda (nasil, ne biim [HNO, 820]) = how?

ne-ke (neye, neden [HNO, 820]) = why?

ne-luk (neden [HNO, 820]) = because of what?

nen-e (ka, ne kadar [HNO, 820]) = how many

neng (s^ey, nesne [HNO, 820]) = thing

neng-nen (ne, her ne [HNO, 820]) = what

ne teg (ne gibi) = like what [HNO, 820; AVG, 72]

185 WHEN

when

--

--

me.na.am3

ud...-a

ne zaman, na d

kaan (ne zaman AVG, 72])

d = time [HNO, 825]

186 WHERE

where

--

me-a, ki..-a

nerede

kani (ne-rede, [AVG, 72])

187 WHITE

white

--

babbar

bar 6.bar 6

ak/ag/ag~, bayaz

bayaz

ag~, ak

188 WHO

who

who

--

a.ba

a.ba

kim, ki

kim

apa = father

189 WIDE

to widen, wide

to widen, wide

to widen, wide

wide

to be wide

--

dag~al, d>

dag~al

dag~al, d>y

tal2

sal

genis^, enli

og~-al-mak = to increase, to swell

dag~-l-mak = to spread, to widen to widen

yay-l-mak = to spread, to widen

genis^;sel = flood

genis^-le-mek; sel = flood

190 WIFE

wife, husband, spouse

female, woman

female, eggs, offspring

--

dam

munus

nu-nuz

kari, es^

dam (ev) = house

eme, mama [AVG, 286]

nene, nine = grandmother

191 WIND

wind

--

im, lil

yel, yil

yel, yil

192 WING

wing

to fly

--

--

--

a2, pa p>k

dal

dal d>y

dal

kanat, telek, yelek

ka-nat (telek [IZEy, 652]); kana(t) [IZEy, 370] = wing

tel-ek (ty, tg [IZEy, 652]) = feather, down

yel-ek (kaz tel-egi) = quill from a goose or from a bird's wing.

dal (kol, butak/budak) = branch

TO WIPE

to wipe

erase

--

ra.g

dir

silmek

sil-mek; ku-ru-lamak = to dry

sil

194 WITH

together with

commitative

lie with

--

-da, -ta

-da-

-na

ile, beraber

-le, -la = suffix expressing togetherness

-de, -da, -te, -ta = locative suffix

-ne, -na = dative suffix for demonstrative pronouns

195 WOMAN

woman

--

munus

kadn, eme, mama, nine, hala

meme = breast; ana = mother; hanm/hanum = lady

196 WOODS, FOREST

woods, forest

--

--

--

--

--

tir

--

--

tir

tir

orman, koru, yis^, ag~a

ter (dirilik, islaklik, yes^illik, canlilik [IZEy, 655]) = liveliness, wetness,

greenness, living (all of these concepts are associated with forest

or woods);

ter-ek (kavak [KTLS, 454]) = poplar tree, wooden shelf

ter (kabuk [IZEy, 655]) = shell; bark of a tree

X19 TO WORK

to work

--

kin..ak

is^lemek, alis^mak

--

197 WORM

worm

--

g~ar7 [?]

solucan, kurt

gurt/kurt (solucan)

198 YOU

you

--

-zu.ne(.ne)

siz

-niz, -nuz = verbal pronoun for 2nd p. pl

199 YEAR

year

--

mu

yl, sene

yl, sene

200 YELLOW

yellow

--

sig7

sari

sari



NOTES:

1."u" has been widely used in Turkish literature as a word corresponding to the word "and". It might be considered by some as a loan word into Turkish from Persian. Although it is not clear who got this word from whom, however, in our view, it is a Central Asiatic word which has migrated into Persian: a) by way of Sumerians and/or 2) by way of other Central Asiatic peoples such as Sakas, Huns, Turks who ruled the Persian land mass many times and each time for very long durations of time throughout the known history. So, in Persia there were a lot of interaction between Central Asiatic Turkish peoples and Persians throughout the history. During these times of interactions, there have been linguistic and cultural borrowings between the two ethnic groups.

2.Sumerian "pa" is reported to mean the "top", the "upper part of a tree", "the upper part of a bird", "supervisor", "chief" and "coming from upper sides" [AZ, 223]. If this definition is correct, then we would have direct correspondence for it in Turkish. The Turkish version of this Sumerian word would be as follows: "bas^ = head"; "the upper part of a bird" is 'bas^'; father "apa" in Turkish is a supervisor of a household as well as the chief of the family. So evidently Sumerian "pa" and Turkish "bas^ are related to each other. Probably the earliest form of Turkish "bas^" was also "pa". This we can se from the Turkish word "tepe" meaning hill, mountain top, top of the head and figuratively, someone above others. In Turkish, there is also the saying of "dag~ bas^i" meaning "mountain top". If we want to synthesize this two words in old Turkish, we would need to put together the Turkish word "tau (dag~) = mountain" and the word "bas^ = pa". Thus we would have {tau+pa ----> taupa ----> tapa} which is exactly the Turkish word "tepe" in form and meaning, thus, meaning "mountain top" or hill. When one looks at a mountain chain at a horizon, "mountain peaks" will look like "small hills = tepes" with respect to the main bodies of the mountains. So Turkish word "tepe" fits well to these two different but similar concepts. Let us now consider the Turkish word "apa" meaning "father". If we use the same approach to its synthesis as we did for the word "tepe, one could say that "father is the "head of a house', "father" is a "supervisor" and "father" is the "chief" in the house and hence we would have {a + pa} where the Sumerian word "e" is "house" and "pa" is "top". The Turkish word for "house" is "ev" the very ancient version of which was probably "e" or "a". When we put them together, we have {(ev+bas^) ----> (e + pa) ----> (a+pa) ----> apa = father}. Again we see that we have a likely explanation for Turkish word "apa" having total affinity to the Sumerian words "e = house" plus "pa= top".

3.The concept inbedded in the words "bud", "leaf" and "sprout" have one aspect in common to them all which is they all develop at the tip of the branch of a tree or plant. So Sumerian "pa" meaning "top", as also suggested by the Turkic words "tepe" and "apa", seems to be a fitting interpretation of the Sumerian sign for this word.

4.For Central Asiatic people, whose economy in ancient times was based on herds of sheep, cattle, horse and other herbivorous animals, lamb and/or sheep, i.e., Sumerian "udu for sheep and Turkish "kuzu" for lamb, was one source of meat. This culture, i.e., using "lamb meat" for their meat intake, has been carried on to the present times by Turkic peoples.

5.In Turkish, change from d to y is very common. Because of this type of consonant changes, some Turkic dialects are classified as d group and some others as y group, eg. adak versus ayak meaning "foot",[TDEK2].

6.The word "mar" for snake, serpent is used both in Turkish and Persian. Some would claim it as a Persian loan word in Turkish. Who got the word from whom is not certain.

7.In archaic Turkish, there is the-en, -an suffix used as suffix for plural. A good example of this is in the Turkish word "er-en" meaning "men, soldiers, brave men". When the 3rd p. s. pronounoor when it is in the form of an, en receives the plural suffix-an or-en, we get 'an+an' or 'en+en' form which would correspond to the present form 'onlar'. Thus the archaic form en-en or an-an of this Turkic word would be related to the corresponding Sumerian word 'e.ne.ne'.

8.If a Sumerian word starts with a vowel and ends with a consonant, i.e., in the format of VC, it is very likely that in the original Sumerian form, that word may actually ended in a vowel, i.e., having a VCV format whereby the final V was dropped when reading the Sumerian cuneiform writing, eg: us[u], ug[u]. Similarly, if a Sumerian word has been read in the CV format, it is likely that that word was originally in VCV format, but somehow the first vowel got dropped in the evolution of the Sumerian language or in the reading process of the Sumerian cuneiform writings.

9.In Sumerian pantheon "an" is the topmost god who created everything on the earth and in the sky. The underlying theme of this word is that "an" is the "mother creator" of everything. In view of this understanding, it seems that the Turkish word "ana" for mother is related to the Sumerian "an". It is reasonable to think that even during proto Sumerian times, "an" and "ana" not only were related but probably were the same word used for a number of differing meanings as indicated by the Sumerian word "an" and the Turkish word "ana". This again implies that the ancestors of Turks and the Sumerians were very closely related people, sharing a common culture in a homeland common to both of them. All indications are pointing to Central Asian steppes.

10.It seems that the Sumerian suffix -ag and Turkish suffix -ag or -ak have the similar meaning as suggested in the following examples: bar-ag vs otur-ak, or dur-ak.

11.In Turkish the saying "men menem" has two meanings; 1) 'I am myself, I do not resemble anyone else but myself; 2) 'I am my fate' which again means 'I represent my fate only' or 'I am the living representation of my fate'. In this Turkic saying, one gets the meaning of Sumerian "me" for fate. Therefore, there seems to be a kinship between the Sumerian word "mae = I", the Turkish word "men = I" and the Sumerian word "me" for fate.

12.As one interacts with the ground, one picks up dirt, "kir" in Turkish, which comes from the ground. Thus it seems that Sumerian word "ki" and Turkish word "kir", in addition to Turkic "KIR" = countryside, are related and coming from the same root word.

13.In Turkish the root word "kat" signifies "layers" of layered object in which layers are tied or attached together, eg. 'apartman kati' a floor of a building, 'ipin kati' a layer of a rope, 'kat' of any weaving eg. basket, socks, rug weaving, etc. In the case of rope, the layer threads are tied or hold together by twisting, "bkmek" in Turkish, them together. Thus the Turkish word "bkm" signifies a kind of tie or knot, i.e., "dgm" in Turkish.

14.Turkish villager who raise sheep keep their herd in enclosed pens during winter. The waste of sheep in the pen is stepped on and pressed down by the sheep all winter long. In the spring time when sheep are let out, then the pressed sheep waste is cut and put out to dry. The dried waste is used for burning. These cut and dried waste bricks are called "kesek" or "kerme" or "tezek" depending on the local dialect of people using it.

15.This Sumerian word pronounced as abzu by some Sumerologist is written as zuab in its original Sumerian writing [JLHa], that is to say that the sign for zu is written before the sign for ab. Therefore, I feel that it should have been read as zuab rather than abzu. If these two signs written together as zuab stands for underground waters in Sumerian, then we have a correspondence between this Sumerian word and the Turkic word "su" for water. Why the order of the Sumerian words zuab has been changed to abzu is a mystery. This kind of arbitrary change alters the character of the word making the word Akkadian rather than Central Asian as written in its Sumerian form.

16.The ancient Turkic word for "sky" is "tang > tan". This is written in the form of "Tan" in "IRK BITIG" hand written Gk Trk manuscripts, [HNO,271, line 38. XXVI]. The Turkic words "tengri", tenger", "tengere", "tangara" and "tanri" which all come from the same root, initially must have consisted of the root words "tang" or "Teng" plus "er" plus "-i" meaning the "man of the sky/heaven" and hence "the God". These roots put together as (teng + er + i) ---> tengeri ---> tengri. The suffix -i is indicative of the accusative form of the Altaic word "tengri".

REFERENCES

ARAT..... Resid Rahmeti Arat, "Makaleler, cilt I", Turk Kltrn Arastirma Enstits, hazirlayan: O. F. Sertkaya,

..... ..... ....Ankara, 1987.

AVG....... A. von Gabain, Eski Trkenin Grameri", Ceviren: Mehmet Akalin, Trk Dil Kurumu Yayinlari, 332,

..... ..... ....Ankara, 1988.

AYB1..... Azerbaycan Yurt Bilgisi, Cilt1, Sayi 1-12, Burhanettin Matbaasi, Istanbul,1932.

AYB2..... Azerbaycan Yurt Bilgisi, Cilt 2, Sayi 13-24, Burhanettin Matbaasi, Istanbul,1933. AYB3 Azerbaycan Yurt

..... ..... ....Bilgisi, Cilt 3, Sayi 25-36, Burhanettin Matbaasi, Istanbul,1934.

AZ..... ....Andraz Zakar, "Sumerin-Ural-Altaic Affinities", Current Anthropology, vol. 12, No. 2, April 1971,

..... ..... ...p. 215-224.

FH..... ....Fred Hamori: "100 word Hymes List"

FH2........Fred Hamori: "Ural - Altaic Language Page"

IZEy..... ..Ismet Zeki Eyboglu, "Trk Dilinin Etimoloji Szlg", Sosyal Yayinlar, Istanbul, 1991.

IBML..... Abdullah Battal, "Ibni-Muhenna Lugati", Atatrk Kltr, Dil ve Tarih Yksek Kurumu, Trk Dil Kurumu

..... ........ Yayinlari: 9,Ankara, 1988.

JLHa..... John L. Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena Publications, Malibu, 1990.

KTLS.....Karsilastirmali Trk Leheleri Szlg, Kltr Bakanligi /1371, kaynak Eserler Dizisi /54, Ankara, 1992.

UYAT.....Kurtulus Oztopcu, "Uygur Ataszleri ve Deyimleri", Dogu Trkistan Vakfi Yayinlari, Istanbul, 1992.

MiEl...... Mircea Eliade, "Shamanism Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy", Bollingen Series LXXVI, Princeton University

..... ........ Press, 1974.

MuEr..... Muharrem Ergin, "Bir Azeri Sairi Ahmet Bey", Azerbaycan Yurt Bilgisi, Cilt 4, Sayi 37, Burhanettin Erenler

..... ........ Matbaasi, Istanbul,1954, s. 18-21.

ODes..... Oguz Hakan Destani, part of ARAT above, pages 605-672.

ONT...... Osman Nedim Tuna, "Smer ve Trk Dillerinin Tarihi Ilgisi Ile Trk Dilinin Yasi Meselesi", Atatrk Kltr,

..... ..... ...Dil ve Tarih Yksek Kurumu, Trk Dil Kurumu Yayinlari : 561, Ankara, 1990.

PK........ Polat Kaya, "A Study of the Lemnos Island Inscription: a preliminary report", ISBN 0-9696949-3-8, Ottawa,

..... ....... Ontario, Canada, 1977.

RDH1... "Trke-Ingilizce Redhouse Szlg", Redhouse Yayinevi, Istanbul, 1987.

RDH2... "Ingilizce-Trke Redhouse Szlg", Redhouse Yayinevi, Istanbul, 1980.

TDK...... Trk Dil Kurumu, "Trke Szlk", sayi 175, Ankara, 1959.

TDEL1... Trk Kltrn Arastirma Enstits, "Trk Dnyasi El Kitabi", Birinci Cilt, Cografya-Tarih, Ankara, 1992.

TDEL2... Trk Kltrn Arastirma Enstits, "Trk Dnyasi El Kitabi", Ikinci Cilt, Cografya-Tarih, Ankara, 1992.

ABT....... Abdullah Battal Taymas, "Kazan Trkesinde Ata Szleri ve Deyimler", Atatrk Kltr, Dil ve Tarih Yksek

..... ........ Kurumu, Trk Dil Kurumu Yayinlari : 275, Ankara, 1988